Empowerment of women is an important trend affecting most Arabic countries. Consequently, Arabic women can now enjoy a number of privileges like higher education, better career opportunities and as a result an increased spending power. Numbers of women judges, ministers, members of parliament... etc. are on the rise. Unfortunately, many customers of the elite cafés serving narghile in many Arabic cities are actually highly educated, successful women from better-off families. This image contributes to encouraging NS among younger generations particularly female adolescents.
Social pressure and antismoking campaigns are being directed against cigarette smoking and have been relatively successful in limiting cigarette smoking by females in Arabic countries. Furthermore, laws banning smoking in public premises have contributed to the reduced numbers of cigarette smokers. On the other hand, there are no laws forcing narghile café owners to check the age of their customers or to monitor the "hygiene" of their narghiles.
Family role in combating the habit of NS seems to be lacking. On the contrary, a family member like a father, a sister, a brother, or a mother could be the one introducing NS to the young adolescent female relative. The lack of awareness on narghile hazards added to the absent role model of mothers smoking narghile contributes largely to encouraging narghile use among young females.
Globalization in the era of social networking and information technology has minimized the role of the family and transformed it into a rather permissive and more lenient attitude. Young people in the Arab world are no longer compliant as they used to be, and they would like to argue on many issues including social habits like the narghile.
The World Health Organization in collaboration with the ministries of health play a major role in delivering educational programs not only to the school students but also to the parents who should play a more active role in understanding and communicating with their children.
Since peer pressure is a well-recognized aspect as far as narghile smoking is concerned, it is important to involve young generation in the fighting of the narghile epidemic.
On the other hand, governments can, and should, play an active role in regulating the work of cafés serving narghile, whereby regular periodic checks are performed on the café facilities, and when necessary, the confiscation of instruments that do not comply with medical and hygienic standards. Furthermore, public should be made aware of the availability of disposable parts of the narghile like hoses and tips to reduce the communicable diseases.
To that end, it is of prime importance that research is established to investigate whether the "hygienic hoses" and the disposable "mabsams" are as hygienic as they are thought to be