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Table 3 Risk and Protective Factors Related to Adolescent Drug Abuse*

From: Substance abuse and pharmacy practice: what the community pharmacist needs to know about drug abuse and dependence

Risk Factors Protective Factors
Chaotic home environment Strong and positive bonds with family
Parental substance abuse or mental illness Parental monitoring
Ineffective parenting Clear rules of conduct that are consistently enforced within the family
Affiliations with deviant peers Involvement of parents in the lives of their children
Adolescent's perception of approval of drug-using behaviors in family, work, school, peers and community environments Adoption of conventional norms about drug use
Lack of nurturing Bonds with other pro-social institutions such as school, and church
Failure in school performance Success in school performance
  1. * Table adapted from NIDA infofax "Lessons from Prevention Research"