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Table 1 Sample characteristics and drug use history of the drug users in Kathmandu Valley ( N= 300)

From: ‘South Asian cocktail’ - the concurrent use of opioids, benzodiazepines and antihistamines among injecting drug users in Nepal and associations with HIV risk behaviour

  No cocktail use Moderate use Intensive use Significancea(χ2, ANOVA)
Gender 74.4% x, y 91.2% x 94.8% y χ2 = 16.6, p < .001
Age, years 28.1 (±6.7) 27.6 (±6.2) z 29.6 (±6.1) z F = 3.5, p < .05
Currently in OST 18.6% 20.6% 21.3% χ2 = 0.1, p = .928
Education level     
  Primary schoolb 18.6% y 23.5% 32.9% y χ2 = 12.4, p < .05
  Secondary school 32.6% y 48.0% 43.2% y
  High school 48.8% y 28.4% 23.9% y
Stable living situation 100.0% 96.1% 98.7% χ2 = 3.2, p = .202
Employment     
  Working/student 60.5% 56.9% 57.4% χ2 = 2.8, p = .593
  Unemployed 25.6% 36.3% 32.9%
  Household/other 14.0% 6.9% 9.7%
Ever injected drugs 67.4% x, y 100.0% x 100.0% y χ2 = 87.8, p < .001
Length of injecting drug use, years 8.5 (±6.6) 8.4 (±5.5) 10.1 (±6.1) F = 2.9, p = .057
Length of cocktail use, yearsc 7.8 (±6.5) 8.0 (±5.0) 9.2 (±5.6) F = 1.7, p = .191
Length of heroin use, years 9.9 (±6.0) 11.0 (±6.3) 12.2 (±6.2) F = 2.4, p = .090
Serious health problems 4.7% x, y 20.6% x 23.2% y χ2 = 7.4, p < .05
HIV positive (among tested) 26.9% 24.2% 38.5% χ2 = 4.5, p = .108
HCV positive (among tested) 38.9% 58.3% 63.9% χ2 = 3.8, p = .147
Co-infection 18.6% y 31.4% z 47.7% y, z χ2 = 15.0, p < .001
Physical health (MAP score, 0–4) 1.4 (±0.4) 1.4 (±0.4) 1.3 (±0.5) F = 1.5, p = .217
Mental health (MAP score, 0–4) 1.7 (±0.7) 1.7 (±0.7) z 2.0 (±0.8) z F = 4.6, p < .05
N 43 102 155  
  1. aThe characters x, y and z indicate significant differences between groups according to post hoc statistical tests. bPrimary school or lower. cIn the group without cocktail use, the number of years is related to former periods of concurrent use of opioids, benzodiazepines and antihistamines and/or other drugs.