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Table 2 Socio-demographic and psychoactive substance use patterns associated to participation in overdose prevention programs (OPPs)

From: Coverage of overdose prevention programs for opiate users and injectors: a cross-sectional study

  Attendance to OPP Bivariate poisson Multiple poisson
  Regressiona Regressiona
N Yes PR 95% CI PR 95% CI
  n %     
Socio-demographic characteristics        
Country of origin 306       
Spain 273 112 41 1   1  
Other countriesb 33 21 63.6 1.5 (1.12–2.03)* 1.3 (1.04–1.72)*
Municipality 305       
Less than 100,000 inhabitants; not BMC 63 11 17.5 1   1  
More than 100,000 inhabitants; not BMC 52 20 38.5 2.2 (1.49–3.23)* 2.0 (1.37–2.81)*
Barcelona and BMC 190 102 53.7 3.1 (1.98–4.84)* 2.5 (1.68–3.77)*
Level of education 306       
High school/university degree 73 26 35.6 1    
Secondary education 121 55 45.5 1.3 (0.87–1.81)   
Primary/elementary 112 52 46.4 1.3 (1.01–1.89)*   
Employment status 302       
Working 36 7 19.4 1    
Never worked/unemployed 170 77 45.3 2.4 (0.95–6.02)   
Permanent disability/pensioner 79 40 50.6 2.9 (1.23–6.60)*   
Student/sporadic work/working at home 17 8 47.1 2.6 (0.67–10.10)   
Ever sentenced to prison 304       
No 131 36 27.5 1   1  
Yes 173 95 54.9 2.0 (1.78–2.30)* 1.6 (1.41–1.81)*
Psychoactive substance use patterns        
Age at first drug use 305       
≥13 years 249 100 40.2 1   1  
≤12 years 56 33 58.9 1.4 (1.19–1.75)* 1.2 (1.06–1.45)*
First drug used 304       
Cannabis (marijuana, hashish) 232 101 43.5 1    
Cocaine, heroin, her-coca, crack 48 23 47.9 1.1 (0.88–1.44)   
Other drugsc 24 8 33.3 0.8 (0.40–1.43)   
Parenteral administration 306       
No 87 31 35.6 1    
Yes 219 102 46.6 1.3 (1.03–1.70)*   
Heroin use 306       
No 16 7 43.8 1    
Yes 290 126 43.4 1.0 (0.70–1.47)   
Alcohol risk consumption d 306       
No 167 73 43.7 1    
Yes 139 60 43.2 0.9 (0.75–1.24)   
  1. CI confidence interval, PR prevalence ratio, BMC Barcelona metropolitan conurbation.
  2. *p <0.05.
  3. aPoisson regression with robust variance adjusted by age and sex, using generalized estimated equations to control correlation within recruitment center.
  4. bOther countries: rest of Europe, America, Asia, and North Africa.
  5. cOther drugs: include tranquilizers, mushrooms, LSD, and ketamine.
  6. dAccording to AUDIT[26].