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Table 2 Decisional Balance and Cognitive Dissonance in the four groups of smokers

From: Aiming at Tobacco Harm Reduction: A survey comparing smokers differing in readiness to quit

Decisional Balance n Mean Std. Deviation 95% Confidence Interval for Mean
Groups of smokers*     Lower Bound Upper Bound
A 94 -.13 1.34 -.40 .15
B 65 .10 1.29 -.22 .42
C 90 .07 1.28 -.19 .34
D 152 .40 1.25 .20 .60
Total 401 16 1.30 .029 .28
Cognitive Dissonance** n Mean Std. Deviation 95% Confidence Interval for Mean
Groups of smokers*     Lower Bound Upper Bound
A 67 4.11 1.04 3.86 4.37
B 56 3.61 1.06 3.32 3.89
C 70 4.04 1.02 3.79 4.28
D 122 3.86 .97 3.69 4.04
Total 315 3.91 1.02 3.80 4.02
  1. *Groups differing in terms of capability and intention to quit smoking
  2. Group A: perceived capability (Y) and intention (Y)
  3. Group B: perceived capability (N) and intention (Y)
  4. Group C: perceived capability (Y) and intention (N)
  5. Group D: perceived capability (N) and intention (N).
  6. ** refers to the 315 smokers with negative attitude towards smoking. Scores reflect the degree to which excuses were not employed to reduce CD