From: Aiming at Tobacco Harm Reduction: A survey comparing smokers differing in readiness to quit

Decisional Balance | n | Mean | Std. Deviation | 95% Confidence Interval for Mean | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Groups of smokers* | Lower Bound | Upper Bound | |||

A | 94 | -.13 | 1.34 | -.40 | .15 |

B | 65 | .10 | 1.29 | -.22 | .42 |

C | 90 | .07 | 1.28 | -.19 | .34 |

D | 152 | .40 | 1.25 | .20 | .60 |

Total | 401 | 16 | 1.30 | .029 | .28 |

Cognitive Dissonance**
| n | Mean | Std. Deviation | 95% Confidence Interval for Mean | |

Groups of smokers* | Lower Bound | Upper Bound | |||

A | 67 | 4.11 | 1.04 | 3.86 | 4.37 |

B | 56 | 3.61 | 1.06 | 3.32 | 3.89 |

C | 70 | 4.04 | 1.02 | 3.79 | 4.28 |

D | 122 | 3.86 | .97 | 3.69 | 4.04 |

Total | 315 | 3.91 | 1.02 | 3.80 | 4.02 |