|Illicit heroin use||
• Self-reported data at 3 and 6 month interviews (including number of days used, routes of administration, average amount/cost, and frequency of use in past month as measured by the Opiate Treatment Index (OTI) Q score ; self-reported overdoses.|
• Random weekly UDS result, testing for papaverine metabolites.
|Other drug use||
• Self-reported data at 3 and 6 month interviews regarding use of other opioids, alcohol, benzodiazepines, cannabis, cocaine. Measures include number days used, average cost/amount used.|
• Random weekly UDS result
|High-risk injecting practices||
• Self-report data at 3 and 6 month interviews regarding participation in risk practices for blood borne virus transmission in preceding month using modified Injecting Risk Questionnaire |
• Self-report data regarding injecting practices in past month (including sites, routes, adverse events, complications) and clinical examination of injecting sites (monthly medical reviews)
|General health status and psychosocial functioning||
• Self-report data using SF-36 , EQ-5D [46, 47] and OTI Psychosocial Adjustment Section collected at 3 and 6 month interview|
• Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale  completed at monthly medical review.
|Changes in criminality||• Self – report data using modified Crime Section of Maudsley Addiction Profile  and OTI collected at 3 and 6 month interview|
|Measures of patient expectation and satisfaction||
• Treatment Perceptions Questionnaire |
• Drug Use Expectations and User Nominated Outcome Instrument structured and semi-structured interviews examining patient perceptions of positives and negatives of using illicit heroin, and key outcomes/goals of treatment, as identified by service users (developed for the trial). Interviews conducted with service-user researcher at baseline, 3 and 6 months
• Semi-structured interviews with service-user researcher examining patient perspectives of the relative advantages and disadvantages of each of the three treatment approaches.