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Table 1 Frequencies of Responses to Questions on Needle Exchange

From: Barriers to the dissemination of four harm reduction strategies: a survey of addiction treatment providers in Ontario

Item N %
Agencies currently offering needle exchange (n = 40 agencies) 5 12.5
Agencies that considered offering it 12 34
Considered it, but decided against it because (n = 21 respondents)   
   Little/no perceived need/demand 4 19.0
   service already provided locally 4 19.0
   staff resistance 1 4.8
   anticipated community opposition 3 14.3
   Lack of funding 2 9.5
   presently being considered 2 9.5
   Don't know 9 42.9
   Other 3 14.3
In agencies not offering needle exchange (n = 59 respondents)   
Intra-agency obstacles   
   Little/no perceived need/demand 12 22.0
   Lack of medical staff 5 8.5
   Lack of funding 7 11.9
   service already provided locally 6 10.2
   staff resistance 3 5.1
   contravenes agency's policy/philosophy 2 3.4
   outside mandate/not a medical facility 5 8.5
   Lack of staff 8 13.6
   Don't know 1 1.7
   Other 27 45.8
   None 8 13.6
Extra-agency obstacles   
   community resistance/opposition 31 52.5
   resistance/opposition from other agencies 3 5.1
   Lack of local political support 3 5.1
   funding 2 3.4
   it would be seen as a duplication of services 1 1.7
   May be seen as promoting drug use. 12 20.3
   Don't know 2 3.4
   Other 6 10.2
   None 8 13.6
Expected benefits of needle exchange   
   None 3 5.1
   reduction in HIV/STDs 35 59.3
   might encourage IV drug users to seek counseling 17 28.8
   community safety 7 11.9
   greater accessibility/convenience for IV drug users 7 11.9
   fallows for greater openness about drug use 3 5.1
   Don't know 3 5.1
   Other 25 42.4
For agencies that offer needle exchange (n = 8)   
Reasons for introducing it   
   Reduce the spread of HIV/STDs 4 50.0
   urged to by AIDS committee/Ministry/other agencies 1 12.5
   funding was made available 1 12.5
   Other 4 50.0
Resistance encountered   
   None 5 62.5
   From the staff 1 12.5
   From the Board 1 12.5
   From the general community 4 50.0
How was it dealt with?   
   negotiation/conciliation 1 12.5
   through education/information 1 12.5
   Don't know 1 12.5
   Other 1 12.5