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Table 1 Study phases and participants

From: Development and validation of an Opioid Attractiveness Scale: a novel measure of the attractiveness of opioid products to potential abusers

Study phase Participant category
Phase1: Pre-Concept Mapping Pre-Concept Mapping sample:
• Casual users
• Substance abuse clients
• Pain patients
• Impaired professionals
• Substance abuse experts
Phase 2: Concept Mapping, usability testing Concept Mapping sample:
• Casual users
• Substance abuse clients
• Pain patients
• Impaired professionals
• Substance abuse experts
  Usability testing sample:
• Substance abuse clients
• Pain patients
Phase 3: Initial evaluation Developmental sample:
• Casual users
• Substance abuse clients
Phase 4: Assessment of reliability and validation of scale Confirmation sample:
• Casual users
• Substance abuse clients
  Validation sample:
• Substance abuse experts
Definitions of participant categories
Casual users: active recreational users of prescription opioids who were not in treatment
Substance abuse clients: persons in treatment for opioid abuse
Pain patients: patients with a history of opioid misuse
Impaired professionals: persons in the medical field who were current or previous prescription opioid abusers
Substance abuse experts: professional substance abuse counselors experienced in treating opioid addiction