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Table 3 CEA levels in exclusive hookah smokers

From: Hookah smoking and cancer: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels in exclusive/ever hookah smokers

   Number of daily preparations Number of daily sessions Total daily smoking duration CEA mean levels (ng/ml) p-values Smokers vs non-smokers
Light Smokers (n = 5)   1 1 ≤ 20 minutes 1.06 ± 0.492 ≤ 0.002157
Medium Smokers 1 to 3 1 to 3 ≤ 2 hours 2.52 ± 1.15 ≤ 0.9138
(n=28)
Heavy Smokers 2 to 4 3 to 8 ≤ 6 hours 5.11 ± 3.08 ≤ 0.0001567
(n=26)
Overall hookah exclusive smokers 1 to 4 1–8 ≤ 20 min-6 hrs 3.58 ± 2.61 ≤ 0.0937
(n=59)
Non-smokers (n = 36)   - - - 2.35 ± 0.71 -
*Cigarette (n = 122) smokers - - - 9.19 ± 14.9 ≤ 5.0 × 10-7
*Mixed hookah/cigarette smokers (n = 14)   - - - 7.16 ± 10.38 ≤ 0.006069
  1. *Data from previous study on cigarettes and mixed hookah (cigarettes, bids) smokers (Sajid et al 2007) aggregated.