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Table 1 Inclusion Criteria

From: Integrated programs for women with substance use issues and their children: a qualitative meta-synthesis of processes and outcomes

Study Component


1. Study design

• Must explore women's, children's, or clinicians' experiences (outcomes or processes) in an integrated treatment program for substance-using pregnant women or mothers using a qualitative research design that meets the criteria as defined by Creswell [26]

2. Treatment program participants (must meet all criteria)

• Women who are pregnant or parenting


• Participants had a substance use problem (drug or alcohol) confirmed at baseline enrolment into treatment program by either admission to a substance use treatment program or report of a formal diagnosis

3. Treatment program characteristics (must meet all criteria)

• Must include at least one substance-use treatment service addressing substance use specifically; can be a group or individual treatment service


• Must include at least one treatment service related to children 0-16 years, including children not yet born such as:


   Prenatal care for the mother


   Childcare or babysitting offered


   Therapeutic childcare


   Child resides with mother in residential treatment program


   Child developmental assessments conducted


   Primary/physical infant health care provided


   Child mental health services or therapy


   Parenting support or education group


   Individual parenting support


• Treatment program must not include treatment of males


• Treatment program must not include women who are not pregnant or parenting


• Treatment program must not be exclusively a smoking cessation program

4. Reported findings

• Qualitative findings addressing processes or outcomes related to any of the following areas:


   Maternal health and well-being


   Child health and well-being