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Table 1 Inclusion Criteria

From: Integrated programs for women with substance use issues and their children: a qualitative meta-synthesis of processes and outcomes

Study Component Criteria
1. Study design • Must explore women's, children's, or clinicians' experiences (outcomes or processes) in an integrated treatment program for substance-using pregnant women or mothers using a qualitative research design that meets the criteria as defined by Creswell [26]
2. Treatment program participants (must meet all criteria) • Women who are pregnant or parenting
  • Participants had a substance use problem (drug or alcohol) confirmed at baseline enrolment into treatment program by either admission to a substance use treatment program or report of a formal diagnosis
3. Treatment program characteristics (must meet all criteria) • Must include at least one substance-use treatment service addressing substance use specifically; can be a group or individual treatment service
  • Must include at least one treatment service related to children 0-16 years, including children not yet born such as:
     Prenatal care for the mother
     Childcare or babysitting offered
     Therapeutic childcare
     Child resides with mother in residential treatment program
     Child developmental assessments conducted
     Primary/physical infant health care provided
     Child mental health services or therapy
     Parenting support or education group
     Individual parenting support
  • Treatment program must not include treatment of males
  • Treatment program must not include women who are not pregnant or parenting
  • Treatment program must not be exclusively a smoking cessation program
4. Reported findings • Qualitative findings addressing processes or outcomes related to any of the following areas:
     Maternal health and well-being
     Child health and well-being
     Parenting