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Table 2 Age-, gender-, and race-adjusted comparisons for route of drug administration among rural (n = 101) and urban (n = 111) drug users

From: Route of administration for illicit prescription opioids: a comparison of rural and urban drug users

  Rural Urban Adjusted *
  % % P -values
Buprenorphine (sublingual tablets) 50.5 0 ---
   Swallowing 31.7 0 ---
   Snorting 26.7 0 ---
   Injecting 3.0 0 ---
Fentanyl (patch) 35.6 0 ---
   Swallowing 25.7 0 ---
   Snorting 1.0 0 ---
   Injecting 14.9 0 ---
Hydrocodone (tablets) 90.1 91.9 0.408
   Swallowing 68.3 91.9 0.046
   Snorting 74.3 6.3 < 0.001
   Injecting 0 0 ---
Hydromorphone (all formulations) 32.7 4.6 0.001
   Swallowing 6.9 4.5 0.524
   Snorting 5.9 0.9 0.472
   Injecting 21.8 0 ---
Methadone (tablets) 77.2 3.6 < 0.001
   Swallowing 27.7 3.6 0.083
   Snorting 64.4 0 ---
   Injecting 1.0 0 ---
Morphine (all formulations) 53.5 4.6 0.007
   Swallowing 14.9 3.6 0.652
   Snorting 17.8 0.9 0.547
   Injecting 33.7 0 ---
OxyContin® (generic/tablets) 86.1 23.6 0.002
   Swallowing 25.7 22.5 0.442
   Snorting 68.3 3.6 < 0.001
   Injecting 44.6 0 ---
Other Oxycodone** (tablets) 83.2 50.0 0.374
   Swallowing 31.7 47.7 0.026
   Snorting 68.3 1.8 < 0.001
   Injecting 3.0 0 ---
  1. * p-values adjusting for age, race, and gender
  2. ** Includes, for example, Tylox®, Percocet®, and Percodan®