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Table 1 Summary Relative Risks (95% Confidence Interval) for Smokeless Tobacco Use and Cancer From Two Meta-Analyses

From: The scientific foundation for tobacco harm reduction, 2006-2011

Cancer (n = Boffetta: Lee-Hamling estimates) Boffetta et al. Lee-Hamling
Oral Cavity   
   All (11:41) 1.8 (1.1 - 2.9) 1.79 (1.36 - 2.36)
   Adjusted for smoking (0:19) NA 1.36 (1.04 - 1.77)
   Adjusted for smoking/alcohol (0:10) NA 1.07 (0.84 - 1.37)
Esophagus   
   All 1.6 (1.1 - 2.3) 1.25 (1.03 - 1.51)
   Adjusted for smoking NA 1.13 (0.95 - 1.36)
Pancreas   
   All (6: 7) 1.6 (1.1 - 2.2) 1.00 (0.68 - 1.47)
   Adjusted for smoking (0:7) NA 1.07 (0.71 - 1.60)
Lung   
   All (5: 9) 1.2 (0.7 - 1.9) 0.96 (0.73 - 1.27)
   Adjusted for smoking (0: 6) NA 0.99 (0.71 - 1.37)
  1. NA, Not Available
  2. Source: Boffetta et al. [3]; Lee and Hamling [4].