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Table 1 Factors associated with drug-related harms, Tijuana, Mexico (Unadjusted ORs)

From: Factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing in Tijuana, Mexico

Covariate n(%) (Total = 727) Unadjusted OR 95% CI
Sociodemographics    
   Female 112 (15.4%) 0.78 (0.54-1.14)
   Age (Increase per 5 years) 38 (32 - 43) 0.90* (0.83-0.97)
   Married/common Law 196 (27.0%) 0.87 (0.65-1.17)
   Earned ≥ 3500 pesos on average per month 156 (21.5%) 3.08* (2.40-3.96)
Drug Using Behaviors    
   Used marijuana/hashish 109 (15.0%) 2.79* (2.07-3.76)
   Used heroin by itself 523 (71.9%) 1.08 (0.80-1.44)
   Used methamphetamine by itself 129 (17.7%) 2.57* (1.95-3.38)
   Injected drugs more than once per day 432 (59.4%) 3.10* (2.21 - 4.37)
Physical Macroenvironment    
   Perceived decrease in purity of at least one drug 46 (6.3%) 3.44* (2.17-5.43)
   Deported from the United States 263 (36.4%) 1.00 (0.76-1.32)
Physical Microenvironment    
   Homeless 88 (12.1%) 1.72* (1.23-2.40)
   Born outside Baja, California 475 (65.6%) 0.99 (0.75-1.30)
   Spent time in jail, prison, or detention center 159 (21.9%) 1.88* (1.39-2.54)
Social Microenvironment    
   Traded sex 16 (4.4%) 2.42* (1.33-4.40)
   Police affected access to sterile needles 7 (1.0%) 1.14 (0.44-2.93)
Social Microenvironment    
   Perceived an increase in price of at least one drug 4 (0.6%) 3.06* (1.27-7.35)
Political Microenvironment    
   Used local needle exchange program 452 (62.2%) 2.74* (1.94-3.89)
   Hard or very hard perceived ease to get new, unused syringes 6 (0.8%) 3.80* (1.68-8.57)
Experience with Police Practices    
   Arrested 183 (25.2%) 2.76* (2.12-3.59)
   Arrested for carrying drugs 34 (4.7%) 3.31* (2.06-5.33)
   Arrested for carrying sterile needles/syringes 16 (2.2%) 3.69* (1.84-7.42)
   Arrested for carrying used needles/syringes 21 (2.9%) 3.20* (1.70-6.01)
   Arrested for having track marks 62 (8.5%) 2.40* (1.62-3.58)
   Beaten or sexually assaulted by police (police violence) 45 (6.2%) 1.97* (1.21-3.20)
   Had drugs planted, was asked for money, or had money taken by police (police corruption) 114 (15.7%) 2.38* (1.72-3.28)
   Had belongings burned, forced to leave, asked for sexual favors, or had syringe taken by police (police coercion) 45 (6.2%) 3.10* (1.96-4.91)
Prevalence of Infections    
   Positive for HIV 37 (5.1%) 0.68 (0.38-1.21)
   Active syphilis titer ≥1:8 36 (5.1%) 0.33* (0.14-0.78)
   Positive for TB Infection 539 (76.6%) 0.91 (0.67-1.25)
  1. * p < 0.05
  2. Past 6 months
  3. Median (IQR)