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Table 2 Needle/syringe sources in Hanoi, HCMC, and Thai Nguyen—2012 and 2013

From: Social marketing of low dead space syringes in Vietnam: findings from a 1-year pilot program in Hanoi, Thai Nguyen, and Ho Chi Minh City

Injecting indicators Hanoi HCMC Thai Nguyen  
2012 n = 300 2013 n = 400 p value 2012 n = 300 2013 n = 400 p value 2013 n = 280  
Average length of injecting (year) 5.1 4.7 1 4.3 4.5 1 5.3 1
Average number of injections each day (time) 2.1 2.3 1 2.3 2.4 1 1.8 1
Payment for needle/syringe used in the last 1 month (%)
 Purchased all needle/syringes used 73.4 85.3 0.000 77.1 86.1 0.000 79.1 0.042
 Some purchased, some free 22.1 12.1 0.000 17.2 11.7 0.038 15.7 0.122
 Replied on free needle/syringes used 4.5 2.6 0.170 5.7 2.2 0.015 5.2 0.030
Needle/syringe supplies among those purchased N/S in the last 1 month (%) n = 285 n = 364   n = 282 n = 380   n = 263  
 Pharmacy 90.5 88.1 0.421 89.6 87.5 0.436 93.8 0.012
 Injecting mate 8.6 12.5 0.095 11.1 10.8 0.677 2.1 0.000
 Tea stall/cigarette seller/motorbike driver 1.9 6.4 0.003 1.3 6.9 0.001 5.3 1
Sources of needle/syringe late at night in the last 1 month (%)
 Pharmacy in hospital NA 11.4   NA 2.8   2.1 0.000
 Injecting mate   34.5    7.3   4.1 0.000
 Tea stall/cigarette seller/motorbike driver   33.7    8.5   21.5 0.000
 Re-used N/S   8.9    67.9   62.5 0.000