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Table 4 Bivariate analysis of factors associated with LDS syringe use in the last month among surveyed IDUs in the North (n = 680)

From: Social marketing of low dead space syringes in Vietnam: findings from a 1-year pilot program in Hanoi, Thai Nguyen, and Ho Chi Minh City

Characteristics Total n (%) Used LDSS in the last month n (%) Odds ratio (95 % CI) r p value
Age 680 143 1.148 (0.357–3.767) 0.046 0.254
Education level
 Never been at school/primary school (ref) 32 3 (2.1 %) 0.204 (0.019–2.216)   
 Secondary school 311 60 (41.9 %) 0.737 (0.398–1.365) 0.217 0.192
 High school or above 337 73 (51.0 %)   0.314 0.332
Income 680 143 0.905 (0.757–1.082) 0.097 0.273
Injection frequency in the past week 680 143 1.731 (1.101–2.665) 0.538 0.017
Ever been stopped by police relating drug use
 Yes 251 58 (40.5 %) 1.655 (1.116–2.452) 0.750 0.006
 No 429 85 (59.5 %)    
Sharing N/S in the last 12 months
 Yes 35 8 (5.6 %) 1.869 (.663–5.271) 0.049 0.230
 No 645 135 (94.4 %)    
Self-reported HIV status
 Positive 81 6 (4.2 %) 1.397 (0.542–3.297) 0.031 0.444
 Negative or unknown 599 137 (95.8 %)    
Believed that LDSS is easily hidden from police and other non-drug users
 Yes 186 56 (24.4 %) 1.718 (1.290–2.015) 0.654 0.027
 No 422 87 (61.6 %)    
Aware that LDSS is easily accessed at late night
 Yes 146 39 (27.3 %) 2.733 (1.052–3.219) 0.317 0.016
 No 534 104 (72.7 %)    
LDSS is encouraged to use by injecting mates
 Yes 136 63 (44.0 %) 2.341 (1.374–2.816) 0.421 0.013
 No 544 80 (56.0 %)    
LDSS is affordable
 Yes 98 16 (11.2 %) 1.732 (1.034–2.310) 0.360 0.027
 No 582 127 (88.8 %)    
Awareness of LDSS non-health benefits
 Yes 238 95 (66.4 %) 4.231 (2.734–4.710) 0.713 0.001
 No 442 48 (33.6 %)    
Aware that LDSS can minimize the risk of HIV and HCV infection
 Yes 176 54 (37.7 %) 1.446 (1.263–1.655) 0.523 0.012
 No 514 89 (62.3 %)    
Exposure to LDSS social marketing activities
 Yes 145 111 (77.6 %) 23.08 (13.26–40.16) 0.789 0.001
 No 535 32 (22.3 %)    
  1. CI confidence interval, r Pearson’s correlation coefficient