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Table 5 Multivariable regression analysis of factors associated with LDSS use in the last month among PWID in Hanoi and Thai Nguyen (n = 680)

From: Social marketing of low dead space syringes in Vietnam: findings from a 1-year pilot program in Hanoi, Thai Nguyen, and Ho Chi Minh City

Characteristics Odds ratio (95 % CI) p value
Believed that LDSS is easily hidden from police and other non-drug users (yes vs. no) 1.32 (1.09–1.91) 0.015
Aware that LDSS is easily accessed at late night (yes vs. no) 2.03 (1.05–2.73) 0.007
LDSS is encouraged to use by injecting mates (yes vs. no) 1.80 (1.32–2.16) 0.013
LDSS is affordable (yes vs. no) 1.22 (1.03–1.73) 0.027
Awareness of LDSS non-health benefits (yes vs. no) 3.19 (1.05–3.31) 0.001
Aware that LDSS can minimize the risk of HIV and HCV infection (yes vs. no) 1.30 (1.16–1.65) 0.022
Exposure to LDSS social marketing activities (yes vs. no) 21.08 (10.6–27.3) 0.001
  1. Adjusted by age, education, income, and injection frequency in the past week