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Table 1 Differences between male injecting drug users retained and lost to follow-up in Kabul, Afghanistan, 2007–2009

From: Hepatitis C and HIV incidence and harm reduction program use in a conflict setting: an observational cohort of injecting drug users in Kabul, Afghanistan

  Baseline-only group (n = 97) Cohort group (n = 386)  
Variable Median (IQR) Median (IQR) p value
 Age (years) 27, (24–32) 28 (24–35) 0.10
 Duration of injecting (years) 1 (0–4) 2 (1–6) <0.01
 Age initiated injecting (years) 25 (21–28) 24 (21–29) 0.92
 Level of education (years) 5 (2–9) 5 (0–8) 0.69
Variable n (%) n, (%) p value
 Ever married 51 (53) 173 (45) 0.17
 Born in Afghanistan 85 (88) 333 (87) 0.73
 Lived outside Afghanistan in the last 5 years 60 (62) 250 (65) 0.51
 Homeless at enrollment 9 (9) 99 (26) <0.01
 Employed at enrollment 11 (11) 45 (12) 0.91
 Prior incarceration 60 (62) 242 (63) 0.79
 Initiated injecting in Afghanistan 76 (78) 245 (64) <0.01
 Initiated injecting as a refugeea 18 (20) 124 (36) <0.01
 Initiated injection within the last 12 months 33 (34) 78 (20) <0.01
 Shared needles/syringes within 3 months of enrollment
(baseline report)
2 (2) 70 (8 0.06
 Shared injecting equipment within 3 months of enrollment (baseline report) 26 (27) 106 (28) 0.90
 Ever inject/re-aspirate blood 70 (72) 267 (69) 0.64
 NSP service use at enrollment 54 (56) 204 (53) 0.67
 Receive prior addiction treatment 10 (10) 60 (16) 0.18
 HCV infection at baseline 18 (19) 156 (40) <0.01
 HIV infection at baseline 1 (1) 9 (2) 0.70
  1. HIV human immunodeficiency virus, NSP needle and syringe distribution and collection program, IQR interquartile range, n number
  2. aOf 437 participants who were ever refugees