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Table 1 Characteristics of MMT participants at baseline (n = 965)

From: Impact of a methadone maintenance therapy pilot in Vietnam and its role in a scaled-up response

  Hai Phong HCMC Total p value
% (n) % (n) % (n)
Gender
 Male 98.1 (458) 92.0 (458) 94.9 (916) 0.000b
 Female 1.9 (9) 8.0 (40) 5.1 (49)
Age—mean (SE) 34.4 (0.1) 30.1 (0.1) 32.3 (0.1) 0.000c
 Under 20 2.8 (13) 1.0 (5) 1.9(18) 0.000d
 20 to 25 10.3 (48) 15.7 (78) 13.1 (126)
 25 to 29 19.1 (89) 45.9 (228) 32.9 (317)
 30 or more 67.9 (317) 37.4 (186) 52.2 (503)
Education
 No school 0.6 (3) 0.8 (4) 0.7 (7) 0.631d
 Primary school 8.8 (41) 10.6 (53) 9.7 (94)
 Secondary school 44.1 (206) 46.8 (233) 45.5 (439)
 High school 42.2 (197) 38.0 (189) 40.0 (386)
 College/university 4.3 (20) 3.8 (19) 4.0 (39)
Monthly income—mean in US$ (SE) 285.5 (11.2) 292.4 (13.8) 289.1 (8.9) 0.699c
Duration of drug use—mean in year (SE) 9.7 (0.2) 9.6 (0.2) 9.7 (0.1) 0.596c
Frequency of heroin use at baseline
 Once per day 1.1 (5) 2.4 (12) 1.8 (17) 0.256b
 2 to 3 times/day 62.9 (291) 63.6 (316) 63.2 (607)
 4 times or more per day 36.1 (167) 34.0 (169) 35.0 (336)
Methods of administering drug in the 30 days prior to MMT enrollment
 Injecting 81.2 (379) 87.0 (433) 84.2 (812) 0.014b
 Inhaling 21.6 (101) 18.7 (93) 20.1 (194) 0.253b
Had ever been in state-operated drug rehabilitation centers (“06 centers”) 15.0 (70) 45.6 (227) 30.8 (297) 0.000b
Had had sex with regular partners 46.7 (218) 43.4 (216) 45.0 (434) 0.302b
Had had commercial sex in the previous 3 months 3.6 (17) 2.6 (13) 3.1 (30) 0.357b
Had a regular sex partner who was also PWID 7.5 (35) 14.5 (72) 11.1 (107) 0.001b
HIV-positive 26.6 (124) 37.2 (146)a 31.4 (270) 0.001b
Hepatitis B positive 11.8 (55) 20.6 (102) 16.3 (157) 0.000b
Hepatitis C positive 40.0 (187) 69.8 (346) 55.4 (533) 0.000b
  1. aIn 392 participants (out of 498) who agreed to provide blood samples for HIV test or had HIV test results in their medical records at MMT clinics
  2. bChi-square test
  3. c T test
  4. dFisher’s exact test