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Table 1 Descriptive and bivariate analysis of demographics, substance use patterns, and associated fentanyl-detection as reported by participants

From: Why the FUSS (Fentanyl Urine Screen Study)? A cross-sectional survey to characterize an emerging threat to people who use drugs in British Columbia, Canada

Variable Total number (%) Number positive (%) OR [95 %CI] p value
Substance use
 Methadone 73 (30 %) 18 (25 %) 0.74 [0.39, 1.36] 0.34
 Morphine 97 (40 %) 27 (28 %) 0.91 [0.51, 1.61] 0.76
 Dilaudid 55 (23 %) 13 (24 %) 0.71 [0.34, 1.39] 0.33
 Oxycodone 23 (10 %) 9 (39 %) 1.67 [0.66, 4.00] 0.26
 Fentanyl 31 (13 %) 19 (61 %) 4.97 [2.28, 11.20] <0.001
 Benzodiazapines 48 (20 %) 14 (29 %) 1.01 [0.49, 2.00] 0.97
 Stimulants NOSa 25 (10 %) 7 (28 %) 0.95 [0.35, 2.30] 0.91
 Heroin 126 (52 %) 42 (33 %) 1.57 [0.90, 2.78] 0.12
 Cocaine powder 65 (27 %) 16 (25 %) 0.74 [0.38, 1.40] 0.37
 Crack 78 (32 %) 21 (27 %) 0.86 [0.47, 1.56] 0.64
 Crystal meth 143 (59 %) 55 (38 %) 3.50 [1.88, 6.86] <0.001
 Marijuana 55 (23 %) 14 (25 %) 0.80 [0.39, 1.55] 0.52
Number of substances used
 1 substanceb 30 (12 %) 5 (17 %) 1.0 0.12
  >1 substance 212 (88 %) 65 (31 %) 2.21 [0.87, 6.78] 0.12
Overdose
 Overdose within last month 24 (10 %) 7 (29 %) 0.98 [0.36, 2.39] 0.97
 Overdose within last week 5 (2 %) 5 (100 %)
Health authority
 Fraser Health Authority 57 (24 %) 22 (39 %) 1.26 [0.59, 2.69] <0.001
 Interior Health Authority 54 (22 %) 9 (17 %) 0.40 [0.16, 0.96] <0.001
 Northern Health Authority 57 (24 %) 10 (18 %) 0.43 [0.17, 1.00] <0.001
 Vancouver Coastal Healthb 60 (25 %) 20 (33 %) - = 1.0 <0.001
 Island Health 14 (6 %) 9 (64 %) 3.60 [1.10, 13.08] <0.001
Age group
 19–29 45 (19 %) 12 (27 %) 0.99 [0.41, 2.31] 0.85
 30–39b 67 (28 %) 18 (27 %) 1.0 0.85
 40–49 83 (34 %) 27 (33 %) 1.31 [0.65, 2.70] 0.85
 50+ 47 (19 %) 13 (28 %) 1.04 [0.44, 2.40] 0.85
Gender
 Female 98 (40 %) 32 (33 %) 1.31 [0.75, 2.31] 0.34
 Maleb 141 (58 %) 38 (27 %) 1.0 0.34
  1. aNot otherwise specified
  2. bVariable used as reference for OR calculations