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Table 5 Factors associated with concurrent drug use and quality-of-life outcomes of MMT

From: Behavioral and quality-of-life outcomes in different service models for methadone maintenance treatment in Vietnam

  EQ-5D index VAS Concurrent drug use
  Coefficient 95 % CI Coefficient 95 % CI OR 95 % CI
MMT model (MMT + VCT - reference)
 Rural MMT-ART-VCT-DGH −4.7** (−8.7; −0.6) 1.4 (−2.1; 4.9) 0.39 (0.08; 1.94)
 Urban MMT-ART-VCT-DGH 1.2 (−1.8; 4.1) 4.0*** (1.3; 6.7) 0.96 (0.30; 3.04)
 MMT +regional polyclinic −0.1 (−3.1; 2.9) 3.7*** (0.9; 6.4) 2.38 (0.90; 6.26)
Duration of MMT (years) 0.01 (−0.1; 0.1) −0.1* (−0.2; 0.0) 0.91*** (0.86; 0.96)
Reported HIV status
 Positive vs. negative    −4.6*** (−7.8; −1.5)   
Reported health problems (yes vs. no)
 Mobility      4.20** (1.41; 12.51)
 Anxiety or depression      3.09** (1.27; 7.53)
Concurrent drug use
 Yes vs. no −9.2*** (−14.7; −3.7) −7.3*** (−12.3; −2.4) N/A  
History of drug rehabilitation
 Number of episodes −0.2** (−0.4; −0.0)     
Education (illiterate - reference)
 Elementary 14.4*** (5.8; 22.9)     
 Secondary 14.7*** (6.5; 22.9)     
 High 14.7*** (6.5; 22.9)     
 Vocational 13.6*** (3.6; 23.6)     
 University 15.4*** (5.6; 25.3)     
Marital status (single - reference)
 Widow −16.2* (−32.8; 0.3)     
Religion (cult of ancestors - reference)
 Buddhism −4.0* (−8.8; 0.7)     
 Catholic −7.2*** (−12.5; −1.8)     
Employment (unemployed - reference)
 Self-employed 2.3** (0.1; 4.4) 5.4*** (3.2; 7.7)   
 White collars    11.6*** (3.2; 20.0)   
 Workers, farmers    3.9* (−0.1; 7.9)   
 Other jobs    4.2** (0.4; 8.0)   
Age group (18 to <25 - reference)
 25 to <30 6.9*** (3.0; 10.8)     
 30 to <35 6.9*** (3.4; 10.4) −2.8* (−5.7; 0.1) 2.26* (0.99; 5.18)
 35 to <40 4.9*** (1.4; 8.4) −3.9** (−6.9; −0.9)   
 40 to <45 7.0*** (3.0; 11.0) −4.1** (−7.5; −0.7)   
 45 and above    −11.8*** (−15.4; −8.3)   
 Constant 72.0*** (63.1; 80.9) 77.7*** (74.4; 81.0)   
  1. CI in parentheses
  2. ***p < 0.01; **p < 0.05; *p < 0.1