Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline sample characteristics stratified by requiring assistance with injecting in the previous 6 months among PWID in Vancouver, Canada (n = 1119)

From: Declining trends in the rates of assisted injecting: a prospective cohort study

Characteristic Males (n = 743) Females (n = 376)
Requiring assistance with injectinga p value Requiring assistance with injectinga p value
Yes (%) No (%)   Yes (%) No (%)  
151 (20.3) 592 (79.7) 127 (33.8) 249 (66.2)
Demographic and social characteristics      
 Age (median, IQR) 43 (36–48) 42 (35–48) 0.596 36 (28–43) 37 (29–45) 0.605
 Caucasian 100 (66.2) 409 (69.1) 0.499 70 (55.1) 125 (50.2) 0.367
 <High school diploma 78 (51.7) 249 (42.1) 0.039 65 (51.2) 141 (56.6) 0.368
 In a stable relationship 40 (26.5) 148 (25.0) 0.683 55 (43.3) 96 (38.6) 0.390
 Homelessa 63 (41.7) 230 (38.9) 0.519 57 (44.9) 86 (34.5) 0.051
 Sex worka 7 (4.6) 11 (1.9) 0.069 54 (42.5) 102 (41.0) 0.822
 Incarcerateda 29 (19.2) 115 (19.4) 0.951 28 (22.1) 33 (13.3) 0.031
 Victim of violencea 50 (33.1) 137 (23.1) 0.013 43 (33.9) 51 (20.5) 0.007
Drug use-related characteristics       
 Years injecting (median, IQR) 20 (8–30) 19 (12–31) 0.347 12 (8–24) 16 (10–24) 0.044
 ≥Daily heroin injectiona 52 (34.4) 187 (31.6) 0.504 62 (48.8) 86 (34.5) 0.007
 ≥Daily cocaine injectiona 20 (13.3) 52 (8.8) 0.100 18 (14.2) 27 (10.8) 0.347
 ≥Daily crystal meth injectiona 14 (9.3) 24 (4.1) 0.009 8 (6.3) 9 (3.6) 0.229
 ≥Daily PO injectiona 8 (5.3) 47 (7.9) 0.269 7 (5.5) 12 (4.8) 0.772
 Injecting in publica 77 (51.0) 242 (40.9) 0.021 67 (52.8) 92 (37.0) 0.003
 Syringe borrowinga 15 (9.9) 56 (9.5) 0.860 22 (17.3) 21 (8.4) 0.011
 Non-fatal overdosea 18 (11.9) 36 (6.1) 0.014 14 (11.0) 23 (9.2) 0.608
 Accessed VANDU Injection Support Teama 26 (17.2) 67 (11.3) 0.014 17 (13.4) 26 (10.4) 0.574
 Ever learned safe injection technique by healthcare provider 34 (22.5) 124 (21.0) 0.932 37 (29.1) 45 (18.1) 0.026
  1. PWID people who inject drugs, IQR interquartile range, PO prescription opioid, VANDU Vancouver Area Network of Drug Users
  2. aActivities in the previous 6 months