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Table 2 Univariable and multivariable GEE analyses of factors associated with requiring assistance with injecting among PWID in Vancouver, Canada (n = 1119)

From: Declining trends in the rates of assisted injecting: a prospective cohort study

Characteristic Males Females
Unadjusted OR Adjusted OR Unadjusted OR Adjusted OR
(95 % CI) (95 % CI) (95 % CI) (95 % CI)
Interview year     
 (per year later) 0.95 (0.92–0.99) 0.95 (0.92–0.99) 0.90 (0.87–0.94) 0.93 (0.89–0.97)
Ethnicity     
 (Caucasian vs. other) 1.09 (0.80–1.49)   1.29 (0.91–1.81)  
Education     
 (<high school diploma vs. ≥high school diploma) 1.14 (0.85–1.53)   0.95 (0.66–1.35)  
Currently in a stable relationship     
 (yes vs. no) 1.20 (0.99–1.47)   1.05 (0.86–1.28)  
Homelessa     
 (yes vs. no) 1.10 (0.91–1.32)   1.53 (1.23–1.90)  
Sex worka     
 (yes vs. no) 2.67 (1.48–4.80) 2.17 (1.18–3.99) 1.48 (1.21–1.82)  
Incarcerateda     
 (yes vs. no) 1.08 (0.86–1.34)   1.57 (1.19–2.09)  
Victim of violencea     
 (yes vs. no) 1.35 (1.13–1.62) 1.24 (1.03–1.48) 1.56 (1.26–1.93) 1.31 (1.06–1.62)
Years since first injection     
 (per 10 years longer) 0.85 (0.75–0.97)   0.60 (0.49–0.73) 0.80 (0.65–0.98)
Heroin injectiona     
 (≥daily vs. <daily) 1.37 (1.15–1.63)   1.53 (1.23–1.90)  
Cocaine injectiona     
 (≥daily vs. <daily) 1.56 (1.23–1.98)   0.92 (0.70–1.22)  
Crystal meth injectiona     
 (≥daily vs. <daily) 2.11 (1.49–2.99) 2.20 (1.54–3.14) 0.99 (0.53–1.87)  
PO injectiona     
 (≥daily vs. <daily) 1.01 (0.77–1.33)   0.98 (0.65–1.48)  
Injecting in publica     
 (yes vs. no) 1.67 (1.41–1.97) 1.56 (1.31–1.85) 1.90 (1.57–2.30) 1.59 (1.29–1.96)
Syringe borrowinga     
 (yes vs. no) 1.38 (1.07–1.77)   1.96 (1.54–2.49) 1.47 (1.14–1.91)
Non-fatal overdosea     
 (yes vs. no) 1.56 (1.20–2.03)   1.23 (0.89–1.70)  
Ever learned safe injection technique by healthcare provider     
 (yes vs. no) 1.05 (0.75–1.47)   1.93 (1.26–2.96) 1.80 (1.16–2.79)
  1. PWID people who inject drugs, PO prescription opioid, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aActivities/events in the past 6 months