Skip to main content

Table 2 Homemade drug solutions, street names, ingredients, geographic area of use and key public health concerns

From: A scoping review of home-produced heroin and amphetamine-type stimulant substitutes: implications for prevention, treatment, and policy

Street name Drug type/chemical Ingredients Key adverse health and social consequences Country/city of use
Krokodil.
Other common street names: Russian Magic, Crocodile, Russian Heroin
Opiate-desomorphine Codeine, gasoline or paint thinner, iodine, red phosphorous, tropicamide Injecting risks for BBV transmission and risks present in the production process, contamination, chemical reaction, sharing of paraphernalia, and group injecting practices.
High mortality rates.
Krokodil users presenting in surgeries/emergency rooms with serious and advanced medical complications.
Undesirable medical and social costs.
Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Kazakhstan. Germany (Bochum, Berlin, Frankfurt), Norway (Tromsø). Also: Anecdotal reports in UK, Czech Republic, France, Belgium
Boltushka.
Other common street names: Baltushka, Balka
Cathinone Ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, warm water, household vinegar, and potassium permanganate Injecting risks for BBV transmission and risks present in the production process, contamination, chemical reaction, sharing of paraphernalia, and group injecting practices.
Long-term users of boltushka can experience partial loss of cognitive function, Alzheimer-type symptoms, and possible brain damage.
Manganese-induced Parkinsonism, which is irreversible.
Undesirable medical and social costs.
Odessa*
Jeff
Other common street names: Jaff, Cat, Mulka, Ephedrone
Methcathinone Phenylpropanolamine, warm water, household vinegar, and potassium permanganate Injecting risks for BBV transmission and risks present in the production process, contamination, chemical reaction, sharing of paraphernalia, and group injecting practices.
Manganese-induced Parkinsonism.
Injecting risks for BBV transmission.
Undesirable medical and social costs.
Ukraine
Fentanyl patches (new and used).
Other common street names: China White, White Persian
Opiate Fentanyl, acetaminophen, caffeine Fentanyl use is associated with increased odds of overdose.
Criminality such as misusers who resort to obtaining used patches from elderly nursing home residents, and searching hospital and nursing home dumpsters for discarded patches.
Undesirable medical and social costs.
Russia, Belarus
Cheornaya Opiate Poppy Straw, cigarette ash, sodium bicarbonate Access to poppy straw is seasonal and when it is scarce, injectors will turn to other opiate-type drugs.
Injecting risks for BBV transmission and risks present in the production process, contamination, chemical reaction, sharing of paraphernalia, and group injecting practices.
Circulatory damage and soft tissue infections amongst injectors.
Undesirable medical and social costs.
Russia
Himiya Opiate Poppy straw Access to poppy straw is seasonal and when it is scarce, injectors will turn to other opiate-type drugs, including krokodil.
Injecting risks for BBV transmission and risks present in group injecting practices.
Undesirable medical and social costs.
Ukraine
Braun
Other common street name: Brown
Opiate Mixture of morphine and codeine products, e.g. hydrocodone Injecting risks for BBV transmission and risks present in the production process, contamination, sharing of paraphernalia, and group injecting practices. Czech Republic
Kompot
Other common street names: Polish heroin
Opiate Poppy straw, acetic anhydride, acetone Access to poppy straw is seasonal and when it is scarce, injectors will turn to other opiate-type drugs.
Injecting risks for BBV transmission
Guillain-Barré Syndrome.
Injecting risks for BBV transmission and risks present in group injecting practices.
Undesirable medical and social costs.
Poland
Shirka (Ukraine)
Other common street names: Cherniashka, Black, Hanka
Opiate Poppy straw Access to poppy straw is seasonal and when it is scarce, injectors will turn to other opiate-type drugs
Injecting risks for BBV transmission and risks present in group injecting practices.
Undesirable medical and social costs.
Ukraine, Moldova
Shirka (Odessa*) Methamphetamine Ephedrin, Pseudoephedrine Binge-using patterns that enhance the probability of unintentional overdoses.
Injecting risks for BBV transmission, i.e. risks present in the production process, contamination, sharing of paraphernalia, and group injecting practices.
Undesirable medical and social costs.
Odessa*
Hemia Opiate Poppy straw Access to poppy straw is seasonal and when it is scarce, injectors will turn to other opiate-type drugs, including krokodil and kolyosa.
Injecting risks for BBV transmission and risks present in group injecting practices.
Undesirable medical and social costs.
Odessa*
Kolyosa Opiate Mixture of codeine-containing pills Users will turn to this due to poppy straw being unavailable with associated overdose and injecting risks.
Injecting risks for BBV transmission and risks present in the production process, contamination, sharing of paraphernalia, and group injecting practices.
Undesirable medical and social costs.
Moldova
Pervitin
Other common street name: Vint, Piko
Methamphetamine Ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, industrial chemicals such as gasoline, toluene and tetrachlorethylene Binge-using patterns that enhance the probability of unintentional overdoses.
Injecting risks for BBV transmission and risks present in the production process, contamination, sharing of paraphernalia, and group injecting practices.
Undesirable medical and social costs.
Czech Republic, Moldova
  1. * Ukraine - refers to all cities in Ukraine, except Odessa, which has a range of different terms/names for their homemade drugs