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Table 6 Values, notes, and sources for variables used to predict savings from overdose-related emergency room visits

From: Mitigating the heroin crisis in Baltimore, MD, USA: a cost-benefit analysis of a hypothetical supervised injection facility

Variable Value Note Source
Total annual injections in the SIF (I) 180,000 Based on Insite capacity and use Milloy et al. [45]
Percent of injections resulting in overdose (o) 0.133% Insite’s rate used as conservative estimate, since Baltimore has a higher overdose rate than Vancouver Kerr et al. [99], Kerr et al. [16], Milloy et al. [45], Astemborski and Mehta [100]
Rate of overdose resulting in emergency room visit (t o) 33%   Pollini et al. [50]
Rate of SIF overdose emergency room visit (t i ) 0.79% Ambulance call rate for MSIC, an upper bound for emergency room visits KPMG [14]
Cost of overdose emergency room visit (F) $1,364 Average Baltimore City emergency room visit cost Rienzi [102]