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Table 1 General characteristics of studies

From: Needle exchange programs for the prevention of hepatitis C virus infection in people who inject drugs: a systematic review with meta-analysis

Study Country Location Design Participants Intervention HCV measurement
Hagan 1995 [40] USA Tacoma, WA Case–control Cases: 20 men and women (5 NEP users, 15 non-users), heterosexual injection drug user, have a discrete date of onset of clinical symptoms, serum aminotransferase levels greater than 2.5 times the upper limit of normal, exclusion of other causes of liver injury, serum test positive for hepatitis C
Controls: 26 men and women (19 NEP users, 7 non-users), current injection drug user from other Tacoma Pierce County Health Department services (including those individuals entering a methadone drug treatment program or attending the HIV testing center) during the time cases were reported (1991–1993)
Ever used NEP serum
Hagan 2004 [41] USA Seattle, WA Cohort 484 men and women (324 NEP users, 160 non-users), drug injection during previous year, English or Spanish speaking, age 14 years or older, and not already in the study Use of NEP (yes/no) serum
Holtzman 2009 [42] USA Baltimore, MD Chicago, IL
Los Angeles, CA New York, NY
Cohort/RCTa 1202 men and women (518 NEP users, 684 non-users) that participated in one of three CIDUS studies: CIDUS I: 18–50 years old, reported injecting drugs in the past 12 months; CIDUS II: 18 to 30 years old, reported injecting drugs in the past six months; CIDUS III: injection drug users 15 to 30 years old, reported injecting drugs in the past 6 months CIDUS I and II: NEP participation within the past six months; CIDUS III: NEP participation within the past 3 months serum
Patrick 2001[43] Canada Vancover, BC Cohort 155 men and women (75 NEP users, 80 non-users), PWIDs, residing in the greater Vancouver area, injected at least once in the previous month NEP attendance at least once per week in the previous 6 months serum
Roy 2007 [44] Canada Québec Ottawa, ON Cohortb 359 men and women, at least one injection in the past 6 months, participated at least twice in SurvUDI between 1997 and 2003 NEP use in previous 6 months saliva
Todd 2015 [45] Afghanistan Kabul Cohort 191 men, reported injecting drugs within the past 30 days, residing in Kabul, Dari or Pashto speakers Any NEP use during the previous 3 months serum
  1. aRetrospective analysis of data that included a subset of data from a randomized controlled trial comprised of a cohort who were seronegative at baseline and followed forward in time
  2. bRetrospective analysis of banked specimens