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Table 2 Bivariable and multivariable associations with having witnessed three or more overdoses among individuals injecting drugs in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam, n = 1673

From: Characteristics of persons who inject drugs and who witness opioid overdoses in Vietnam: a cross-sectional analysis to inform future overdose prevention programs

Characteristic OR (95% CI) p value AORa (95% CI) p value
Education
 High school or more 1.00    1.00   
 No high school 0.66 (0.55–0.81) < 0.01 0.70 (0.57–0.86) < 0.01
Marital status
 Not married or living with a partner 1.00      
 Married or living with partner 0.88 (0.73–1.07) 0.20    
Employment Status
 Less than full-time 1.00    1.00   
 Full-time 0.75 (0.60–0.93) 0.01 0.84 (0.66–1.06) 0.1313
Spent the night outside in the past 3 months
 Did not spend the night outside 1.00    1.00   
 Spent the night outside 2.17 (1.65–2.87) < 0.01 1.77 (1.31–2.40) < 0.01
Lifetime history of incarcerationb
 No history of incarceration 1.00    1.00   
 History of incarceration 1.64 (1.34–2.01) < 0.01 1.33 (1.07–1.65) 0.101
Lifetime history of drug treatment
 No history of drug treatment 1.00    1.00   
 History of drug treatment 1.75 (1.42–2.16) < 0.01 1.41 (1.12–1.77) < 0.01
Non-fatal overdose
 No recent non-fatal overdose 1.00    1.00   
 Recent non-fatal overdose 4.30 (2.70–6.86) < 0.01 3.84 (2.36–6.25) < 0.01
Drug injecting frequency
 No daily injecting of drugs 1.00    1.00   
 Daily injecting of drugs 2.07 (1.70–2.52) < 0.01 1.79 (1.45–2.20) < 0.01
Needling purchasing behavior
 Did not purchase at a pharmacy 1.00      
 Purchased at a pharmacyc 0.91 (0.69–1.21) 0.52    
Receptive needle sharing behavior
 Did not share needles 1.00    1.00   
 Shared needles 1.45 (1.18–1.78) < 0.01 1.30 (1.04–1.63) 0.02
Lifetime number of years injecting
 Years of injecting 1.07 (1.04–1.09) < 0.01 1.04 (1.02–1.07) < 0.01
  1. OR odds ratio, AOR adjusted odds ratio
  2. aAdjusted for age and those variables with p value < 0.10 in bivariable analyses were included in the final multivariable model: education, employment status, slept outside in the past 3 months, history of incarceration, history of drug treatment, recent non-fatal overdose, daily injecting of drugs, and receptive needle sharing behavior; n = 1667
  3. bOne response missing (n = 1672)
  4. cOne response “Don’t Know” (n = 1672)