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Table 2 Associations between HIV infection and sociodemographic or behavioral characteristics among men who injected drugs in northwestern Vietnam

From: Prevalence and correlates of HIV infection among men who inject drugs in a remote area of Vietnam

Characteristics HIV positivity
n (%a) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) p value Adjusted OR (95% CI)b p value
Study sites
 Tuan Giao 111 (38.0) 1   1  
 Bat Xat 33 (16.9) 0.33 (0.26–0.52) < 0.001 1.44 (0.75–2.79) 0.278
 Lao Cai City 55 (18.5) 0.37 (0.26–0.54) < 0.001 0.74 (0.40–1.36) 0.329
Demographics and lifetime behaviors
 Age groups
  18–28 52 (25.2) 1   1  
  29–35 80 (37.4) 1.77 (1.16–2.69) 0.008 1.62 (1.10–2.60) 0.046
  36–41 37 (22.0) 0.84 (0.52–1.35) 0.467 0.64 (0.36–1.12) 0.116
  42 or older 30 (15.2) 0.53 (0.32–0.88) 0.013 0.46 (0.25–0.83) 0.010
 Ethnicity
  Kinh 81 (20.9) 1    
  Thai 90 (46.4) 3.28 (2.26–4.77) < 0.001 3.55 (1.84–6.87) < 0.001
  H’mong 1 (1.9) 0.07 (0.01–0.53) 0.010 0.07 (0.01–0.61) 0.016
  Dao 3 (7.7) 0.316 (0.095–1.052) 0.060 0.34 (0.08–1.42) 0.140
  Others 24 (21.8) 1.058 (0.632–1.769) 0.831 0.89 (0.48–1.64) 0.707
 Education level
  No education 22 (19.0) 1   1  
  Grades 1–9 141 (31.6) 1.98 (1.19–3.27) 0.008 0.99 (0.50–1.95) 0.969
  Grade 10 or higher 36 (16.1) 0.82 (0.458–1.48) 0.513 0.46 (0.21–1.02) 0.055
 Duration of injection drug use
  ≤ 1 year 38 (15.5) 1   1  
  2–3 years 51 (23.8) 1.71 (1.07–2.73) 0.024 2.15 (1.26–3.65) 0.005
  4–6 years 50 (36.2) 3.11 (1.91–5.08) < 0.001 4.36 (2.46–7.73) < 0.001
  > 6 years 60 (32.1) 2.59 (1.63–4.11) < 0.001 5.63 (3.10–10.26) < 0.001
 Ever gave or received used needles and/or syringes
  No 163 (25.9) 1    
  Yes 36 (23.4) 0.87 (0.58–1.32) 0.524   
Recent behaviors
 Frequency of injection drug use in the previous month     
  ≤ 1 time/day 59 (19.7) 1   
  ≥ 2 times/day 140 (29.0) 1.67 (1.18–2.36) 0.004  
 Gave or received used needles and/or syringes in the previous 6 months     
  No 182 (26.9) 1    
  Yes 17 (15.9) 0.51 (0.30–0.89) 0.017   
 Gave used needles and/or syringes in the previous month     
  No 166 (24.7) 1   
  Yes 14 (21.5) 0.84 (0.45–1.55) 0.571  
 Received used needles and/or syringes in the previous month     
  No 164 (25.2) 1   
  Yes 16 (18.8) 0.69 (0.39–1.22) 0.204  
 Went to a hotspot in the previous week     
  No 101 (33.8) 1   
  Yes 76 (19.3) 0.47 (0.33–0.67) < 0.001  
 Received free clean needles and syringes in the previous 6 months     
  No 90 (23.8) 1   
  Yes 109 (26.8) 1.17 (0.85–1.62) 0.339  
 Number of sex partners in the previous 6 months     
  1 67 (28.6) 1   
  0 116 (25.8) 0.87 (0.61–1.24) 0.434  
  Multiple 14 (15.7) 0.47 (0.25–0.88) 0.019  
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aPercent by n in each category of sociodemographic or behavioral characteristics
  3. bIn the multivariable model, there were 199 HIV-positive and 586 HIV-negative participants