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Table 3 Factors associated with receiving or giving used needles and/or syringes in the previous 6 months among men who injected drugs in northwestern Vietnam and had never been tested for HIV before this study

From: Prevalence and correlates of HIV infection among men who inject drugs in a remote area of Vietnam

Characteristics   Received or gave used needles and/or syringes in the previous 6 months
n (%a) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) p value (for trend) Adjusted ORb (95% CI) p value (for trend)
Study sites
 Tuan Giao 144 (38.6) 1   1  
 Bat Xat 82 (22.0) 2.41 (1.21–4.79) 0.012 1.22 (0.43–3.44) 0.706
 Lao Cai City 147 (39.4) 0.69 (0.33–1.44) 0.325 0.58 (0.18–1.92) 0.373
Age groups    (0.345)   (0.060)
 18–28 92 (24.7) 1   1  
 29–35 109 (29.2) 0.66 (0.31–1.39) 0.271 0.40 (0.17–0.95) 0.037
 36–41 89 (23.9) 0.46 (0.20–1.09) 0.079 0.25 (0.09–0.68) 0.007
 42 or older 83 (22.3) 0.76 (0.35–1.67) 0.500 0.45 (0.17–1.17) 0.101
Ethnicity
 Kinh 173 (46.4) 1   1  
 Thai 96 (25.7) 1.14 (0.50–2.47) 0.790 1.12 (0.31–4.13) 0.862
 H’mong 16 (4.3) 3.91 (1.22–12.54) 0.022 4.07 (0.83–20.06) 0.085
 Dao 21 (5.6) 4.31 (1.54–12.06) 0.006 4.59 (0.96–21.89) 0.056
 Others 67 (18.0) 2.28 (1.06–4.89) 0.035 2.25 (0.84–6.05) 0.108
Education level    (0.014)   (0.370)
 No education 43 (11.5) 1   1  
 Grades 1–9 224 (60.1) 0.52 (0.24–1.13) 0.099 1.06 (0.38–2.94) 0.912
 Grade 10 or higher 106 (28.4) 0.30 (0.12–0.78) 0.013 0.79 (0.22–2.81) 0.712
Duration of injection drug use    (0.634)   (0.061)
 ≤ 1 year 126 (33.8) 1   1  
 2–3 years 100 (26.8) 2.04 (0.95–4.36) 0.067 2.62 (1.09–6.30) 0.032
 4–6 years 71 (19.0) 2.33 (1.04–5.23) 0.041 4.29 (1.65–11.19) 0.003
 > 6 years 76 (20.4) 1.02 (0.40–2.59) 0.962 2.68 (0.85–8.47) 0.093
Frequency of injection drug use in the previous month
 ≤ 1 time/day 141 (37.8) 1   1  
 ≥ 2 times/day 232 (62.2) 0.75 (0.42–1.34) 0.335 0.77 (0.38–1.55) 0.457
Went to a hotspot in the previous week
 No 155 (41.6) 1   1  
 Yes 218 (58.5) 2.10 (1.13–3.95) 0.022 2.81 (1.34–5.90) 0.006
Received free clean needles and syringes in the previous 6 months
 No 186 (49.9) 1   1  
 Yes 187 (50.1) 0.57 (0.32–1.01) 0.057 0.63 (0.31–1.28) 0.201
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aPercent by n in each category of sociodemographic or behavioral characteristics
  3. bIn the multivariable model, there were 55 participants who received used needles and/or syringes and 318 participants who did not