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Table 4 Factors associated with receiving used needles and/or syringes in the previous month among HIV-negative men who injected drugs in northwestern Vietnam

From: Prevalence and correlates of HIV infection among men who inject drugs in a remote area of Vietnam

Characteristics   Received used needles and/or syringes in the previous month
n (%a) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) p value (for trend) Adjusted ORb (95% CI) p value (for trend)
Study sites
 Tuan Giao 146 (35.8) 1   1  
 Bat Xat 79 (19.4) 3.12 (1.37–7.11) 0.007 1.70 (0.47–6.17) 0.417
 Lao Cai City 182 (44.7) 1.02 (0.45–2.33) 0.957 1.13 (0.33–3.94) 0.848
Age groups    (0.458)   
 18–28 104 (25.6) 1   
 29–35 97 (23.8) 1.08 (0.43–2.72) 0.870  
 36–41 101 (24.8) 0.81 (0.31–2.14) 0.669  
 42 or older 105 (25.8) 1.33 (0.56–3.18) 0.524  
Ethnicity
 Kinh 233 (57.3) 1   1  
 Thai 77 (18.9) 1.45 (0.57–3.71) 0.434 2.91 (0.73–11.51) 0.129
 H’mong 16 (3.9) 6.61 (2.03–21.49) 0.002 5.19 (0.89–30.41) 0.068
 Dao 20 (4.9) 4.84 (1.55–15.14) 0.007 3.18 (0.56–18.06) 0.191
 Others 61 (15.0) 2.52 (1.04–6.06) 0.040 3.01 (1.08–8.38) 0.035
Education level    (0.002)   (0.189)
 No education 38 (9.3) 1   1  
 Grades 1–9 223 (54.8) 0.31 (0.13–0.71) 0.006 0.66 (0.21–2.09) 0.484
 Grade 10 or higher 146 (35.9) 0.18 (0.07–0.49) 0.001 0.51 (0.13–2.02) 0.336
Duration of injection drug use    (0.383)   (0.059)
 ≤ 1 year 142 (34.9) 1   1  
 2–3 years 102 (25.1) 2.16 (0.89–5.26) 0.091 2.13 (0.78–5.81) 0.142
 4–6 years 67 (16.5) 2.90 (1.14–7.39) 0.025 3.83 (1.32–11.13) 0.014
 > 6 years 96 (23.6) 1.34 (0.50–3.61) 0.559 2.52 (0.78–8.19) 0.125
Frequency of injection drug use in the previous month
 ≤ 1 time/day 152 (37.4) 1   1  
 ≥ 2 times/day 255 (62.7) 0.66 (0.35–1.27) 0.211 0.69 (0.31–1.51) 0.347
Went to a hotspot in the previous week
 No 155 (38.1) 1   1  
 Yes 252 (61.9) 2.36 (1.09–5.09) 0.029 3.03 (1.28–7.19) 0.012
Received free clean needles and syringes in the previous 6 months
 No 187 (46.0) 1   
 Yes 220 (54.1) 0.79 (0.41–1.51) 0.476  
Ever tested for HIV
 No 265 (65.1) 1   1  
 Yes 142 (34.9) 0.57 (0.27–1.20) 0.141 0.93 (0.40–2.13) 0.862
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aPercent by n in each category of sociodemographic or behavioral characteristics
  3. bIn the multivariable model, there were 41 participants who received used needles and/or syringes and 366 participants who did not