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Table 5 Factors associated with giving used needles and/or syringes in the previous month among HIV-positive men who injected drugs in northwestern Vietnam

From: Prevalence and correlates of HIV infection among men who inject drugs in a remote area of Vietnam

   Gave used needles and/or syringes in the previous month
Variables n (%)a Unadjusted OR (95% CI) p value (for trend) Adjusted ORb (95% CI) p value
Study sites
 Tuan Giao 104 (57.8) 1   1  
 Bat Xat 28 (15.6) 1.52 (0.28–8.30) 0.627 0.37 (0.04–3.72) 0.395
 Lao Cai City 48 (26.7) 3.38 (1.01–11.27) 0.047 2.75 (0.72–10.56) 0.140
Age groups    (0.120)   
 18–28 49 (27.2) 1   
 29–35 72 (40.0) 0.54 (0.15–1.86) 0.325  
 36–41 33 (18.3) 0.46 (0.09–2.45) 0.364  
 42 or older 26 (14.4) 0.29 (0.03–2.52) 0.260  
Ethnicity
 Kinh 70 (38.9) 1   
 Thai 85 (47.2) 0.22 (0.04–1.08) 0.062  
 H’mong 1 (0.6) c  
 Dao 3 (1.7) c  
 Others 21 (11.7) 1.50 (0.35–6.40) 0.584  
Education level    (0.623)   
 No education 20 (11.1) 1   
 Grades 1–9 130 (72.2) 0.83 (0.17–4.06) 0.820  
 Grade 10 or higher 30 (16.7) 0.31 (0.03–3.68) 0.354  
Duration of injection drug use    (0.194)   
 ≤ 1 year 37 (20.6) 1   
 2–3 years 45 (25.0) 0.81 (0.11–6.08) 0.841  
 4–6 years 47 (26.1) 2.08 (0.38–11.41) 0.398  
 > 6 years 51 (28.3) 1.90 (0.35–10.39) 0.458  
Frequency of injection drug use
 ≤ 1 time/day 52 (28.9) 1   
 ≥ 2 times/day 128 (71.1) 1.54 (0.41–5.75) 0.524  
Went to a hotspot in the previous week
 No 65 (40.6) 1   1  
 Yes 95 (59.4) 5.58 (1.47–21.14) 0.012 4.57 (1.08–19.26) 0.039
Received free clean needles and syringes in the previous 6 months
 No 100 (55.6) 1   1  
 Yes 80 (44.4) 0.29 (0.09–0.97) 0.044 0.21 (0.06–0.79) 0.021
Ever tested for HIV
 No 98 (58.7) 1   
 Yes 69 (41.3) 0.61 (0.18–2.06) 0.425  
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aPercent by n in each category of sociodemographic or behavioral characteristics
  3. bIn the multivariable model, there were 13 participants who gave used needles and/or syringes and 146 participants who did not
  4. cCould not be computed because the number in this subgroup who injected drugs and gave used needles and syringes in the previous month was small or none