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Table 1 Selected socio-demographic and substance use characteristics of participants who have overdosed

From: High willingness to use rapid fentanyl test strips among young adults who use drugs

Characteristic Overall
n (%)
n = 93
Never overdosed
n (%)
n = 59
Have overdosed
n (%)
n = 34
p value
Gender
Male 52 (56%) 33 (55%) 19 (56%) 0.842
Female 37 (40%) 24 (41%) 13 (38%)
Something else 4 (4%) 2 (4%) 2 (6%)
Race
Black 13 (14%) 10 (17%) 3 (9%) 0.369
White 52 (56%) 30 (51%) 22 (65%)
Mixed or other 28 (30%) 19 (33%) 9 (26%)
Homeless ever
Yes 55 (59%) 30 (51%) 25 (74%) 0.034
No 38 (41%) 29 (49%) 9 (26%)
Homeless last 6 months
Yes 17 (18%) 12 (20%) 5 (15%) 0.521
No 76 (82%) 47 (80%) 29 (85%)
Ever arrested
Yes 68 (73%) 37 (63%) 31 (91%) 0.004
No 25 (27%) 22 (37%) 3 (9%)
Arrested last 6 months
Yes 16 (17%) 6 (10%) 10 (29%) 0.025
No 77 (83%) 53 (90%) 24 (71%)
Ever incarcerated
Yes 36 (39%) 19 (32%) 17 (50%) 0.098
No 57 (61%) 40 (68%) 17 (50%)
Ever purchased fentanyl online or the “dark web”
Yes 5 (5%) 2 (3%) 3 (9%) 0.510
No 88 (95%) 57 (97%) 31 (91%)
Regular Heroin Use a
Yes 34 (37%) 16 (27%) 18 (53%) 0.015
No 59 (63%) 43 (73%) 16 (47%)
Regular cocaine usea
Yes 34 (37%) 19 (32%) 15 (44%) 0.263
No 59 (63%) 40 (68%) 19 (56%)
Regular non-medical prescription opioid usea,b
Yes 50 (54%) 26 (44%) 24 (71%) 0.015
No 43 (46%) 33 (56%) 10 (29%)
Ever been prescribed fentanyl
Yes 4 (4%) 2 (3%) 2 (6%) 0.931
No 89 (96%) 57 (97%) 32 (94%)
Ever been in alcohol or drug treatment program
Yes 62 (67%) 33 (56%) 29 (85%) 0.004
No 31 (33%) 26 (44%) 5 (14%)
Ever injected
Yes 45 (48%) 20 (34%) 25 (74%) < 0.001
No 48 (52%) 39 (66%) 9 (26%)
Injected last 6 months
Yes 39 (42%) 15 (25%) 24 (71%) < 0.001
No 54 (58%) 44 (75%) 10 (29%)
Ever seen someone overdose
Yes 59 (63%) 29 (49%) 30 (88%) < 0.001
No 34 (37%) 30 (51%) 4 (12%)
  1. aAt least once a week or every day
  2. bIncludes Percocet, Vicodin, tramadol, OxyContin, oxycodone, hydromorphone, hydrocodone, oxymorphone, or morphine