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Table 2 Selected information-motivation-behavioral (IMB) skills model-related factors associated with overdose among young adults

From: High willingness to use rapid fentanyl test strips among young adults who use drugs

Characteristic Overall
n (%)
n = 93
Never overdosed
n (%)
n = 59
Have overdosed
n (%)
n = 34
p value
Information
Fentanyl acts more quickly than heroin
 Agree 50 (54%) 29 (49%) 21 (62%) 0.042
 Disagree 10 (11%) 4 (7%) 6 (18%)
 Neutral/do not know 33 (35%) 26 (44%) 7 (20%)
I would like to be able to know if there is fentanyl in my drugs before I take them
 Agree 86 (93%) 56 (95%) 30 (88%) 0.070
 Disagree 5 (5%) 1 (2%) 4 (12%)
 Neutral/do not know 2 (2%) 2 (3%) 0 (0%)
Heroin and other drugs that are mixed with fentanyl look different than drugs that are not mixed with fentanyl
 True 25 (27%) 16 (27%) 9 (26%) 0.089
 False 40 (43%) 21 (36%) 19 (56%)
 Do not know 28 (30%) 22 (37%) 6 (18%)
Have you ever heard of naloxone?
 Yes 82 (88%) 50 (85%) 32 (94%) 0.082
 No 10 (11%) 9 (15%) 1 (3%)
 Do not know 1 (1%) 0 (0%) 1 (3%)
Motivation
Concerned about overdosing
 Agree 45 (48%) 20 (34%) 25 (74%) < 0.001
 Disagree 42 (45%) 35 (59%) 7 (21%)
 Neutral/do not know 6 (6%) 4 (7%) 2 (6%)
Concerned about drugs being contaminated with fentanyl
 Agree 65 (70%) 41 (70%) 24 (70%) 0.686
 Disagree 17 (18%) 12 (20%) 5 (15%)
 Neutral/do not know 11 (12%) 6 (10%) 5 (15%)
Confident have ever used a drug that was laced with fentanyl
 Agree 44 (47%) 21 (35%) 23 (68%) 0.010
 Disagree 43 (46%) 34 (58%) 9 (26%)
 Neutral/do not know 6 (7%) 4 (7%) 2 (6%)
Behavioral Skills
In the last 6 months, who is usually around when you are using heroin?a,b
 I use heroin alone 32 (74%) 15 (79%) 17 (71%) 0.806
 A close friend 18 (42%) 7 (37%) 11 (46%) 0.573
 A casual friend or acquaintance 16 (37%) 7 (37%) 9 (38%) 0.969
 A sex partner 15 (35%) 6 (32%) 9 (38%) 0.704
 Other 13 (30%) 5 (26%) 8 (33%) 0.641
What do you do to avoid an accidental overdose?a
 Take smaller amounts 56 (60%) 34 (58%) 22 (65%) 0.514
 Go slow 55 (59%) 31 (52%) 24 (71%) 0.094
 Avoid mixing with other drugs 46 (49%) 34 (58%) 12 (35%) 0.042
 Using with someone else 46 (49%) 26 (44%) 20 (59%) 0.180
 Avoid mixing with alcohol 39 (42%) 26 (44%) 13 (38%) 0.594
 Take a tester 34 (37%) 21 (36%) 13 (38%) 0.800
 Keep Narcan/naloxone nearby 32 (34%) 14 (24%) 18 (53%) 0.006
Do you know where you can buy or get Narcan/naloxone?c
 Yes 53 (57%) 27 (46%) 26 (76%) 0.013
 No 29 (31%) 23 (39%) 6 (18%)
  1. aCategories are not mutually exclusive
  2. bRestricted to persons who reported heroin use in the past 6 months (n = 43)
  3. cAmong the participants who answered “yes” to “Have you ever heard of naloxone, a medication also known as Narcan?” (n = 82)