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Table 1 Criteria for classification of frequent e-cigarette users into six Tobacco Use Pathway (TUP) groups

From: Changing patterns of first e-cigarette flavor used and current flavors used by 20,836 adult frequent e-cigarette users in the USA

Num. TUP group label TUP group definition
1 Switchers A lifetime smoker (≥ 100 cigarettes smoked) who smoked cigarettes regularly prior to initiating e-cigarette use and had quit smoking completely (no smoking in the past 30 days) at the time of survey and was a frequent e-cigarette user at the time of survey.
2 Dual users of cigarettes and e-cigarettes A lifetime smoker (≥ 100 cigarettes smoked) who smoked cigarettes regularly prior to initiating e-cigarette use and was a current smoker (smoked in the past 30 days) and a frequent e-cigarette user at the time of survey.
3 Former smoker-turned-dual users A lifetime smoker (≥ 100 cigarettes smoked) who had quit smoking completely prior to initiating e-cigarette use and was a current smoker (smoked in the past 30 days) and a frequent e-cigarette user at the time of survey.
4 Former-smoker e-cigarette users A lifetime smoker (≥ 100 cigarettes smoked) who had quit smoking completely prior to initiating e-cigarette use and has not re-initiated regular smoking since initiating e-cigarette use and was a frequent e-cigarette user at the time of survey.
5 Never-smoker-turned-dual users A lifetime never-smoker (< 100 cigarettes smoked) who was not smoking at the point of his/her first use of an e-cigarette and was a current smoker and a frequent e-cigarette user at the time of survey.
6 Never-smoker e-cigarette users A lifetime never-smoker (< 100 cigarettes smoked) who was not smoking at the point of his/her first use of an e-cigarette and was not a current smoker at the time of survey and was a frequent e-cigarette user at the time of survey.