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Table 1 Characteristics of the sample (n = 199), by city—Kulob and Khudjand

From: Feasibility of needle and syringe programs in Tajikistan distributing low dead space needles

  Kulob (n = 99) Khudjand (n = 100) p value
Background characteristics
 Mean age (standard deviation [SD]) 35.9 (8.4) 39.3 (7.3)  
 Percentage male 96.0 77.0 < 0.001
 Percentage high school education or greater 53.0 81.0 < 0.001
 Percentage unemployed 96.0 51.0 < 0.001
 Percentage married or living as married 32.3 55.0 0.001
 Percentage ever in substance abuse treatment 75.5 45.0 < 0.001
 Percentage ever incarcerated 1 year or more 27.3 41.0 0.041
 Percentage ever had a sexually transmitted infection 9.1 16.0 0.199
 Percentage tested positive for HIV 22.2 31.0 0.161
 Percentage hazardous or harmful drinkinga 42.4 51.0 0.225
 Percentage reported using heroin daily with or without dimedrol during the past 30 days 90 8 < 0.001
Drug use and injecting practices
 Mean number of injections past 30 days (SD) 67.3 (23.6) 21.9 (17.1) < 0.001
 Mean number of injections with a high dead space needle in past 30 days (SD) 48.2 (35.2) 11.2 (14) < 0.001
 Mean number of times injected heroin by itself in the past 30 days (SD) 15.3 (24.1) 1.5 (6.2) < 0.001
 Mean number of times injected heroin mixed with dimedrol in the past 30 days (SD) 52.0 (34.1) 20.3 (17.6) < 0.001
 Percentage any direct or indirect needle or syringe sharing in the past year 9.1 6.0 0.409
 Mean number of days between project start and completion of follow-up interviews (SD) 81.8 (9.5) 78.7 (8.9) 0.019
 Percentage injected homemade opiates in past 30 days 0.0 14.0 < 0.001
 Percentage injected methamphetamine or another stimulant in past 30 days 0.0 0.0
 Percentage injected prescription opiate in past 30 days 0.0 1.0 1.000
 Percentage injected other prescription drug 0.0 11.0 0.001
 Percentage injected any other drug 0.0 0.0
 Do you like using low dead space needles? 99.0 92.9 0.065
 What do you like about using low dead space needles?    
  Percentage less wasted drugs 94.9 51.0 < 0.001
  Percentage they are free 57.6 99.0 < 0.001
  Percentage it is easy to split drugs accurately 86.9 18.0 < 0.001
  Percentage they save me money on drugs 85.9 64.0 < 0.001
  Percentage they are healthier for me to use because less infected blood stays in them 99.0 24.0 < 0.001
 Percentage did not use any high dead space needles 21.2 31.0 0.117
 Reasons for using high dead space needles in past 30 days at follow-up (n = 78) (n = 69) < 0.001
  Percentage prefer high dead space needles 1.3 44.9 < 0.001
  Percentage could not get a low dead space needle 98.7 40.6 < 0.001
  Percentage low dead space needles wrong size 0.0 13.0 0.001
  Percentage low dead space needles poor quality 0.0 1.4 0.469
  1. aBased on Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) classification score of 8 or higher (https://www.drugabuse.gov/sites/default/files/files/AUDIT.pdf)