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Table 2 Generalized structural equation models, regression coefficients and standard errors (SE), and statistical significances (p)

From: Problem gambling and psychological distress: a cross-national perspective on the mediating effect of consumer debt and debt problems among emerging adults

  Study 1 Study 2 Study 3
Finland nationwide Finland social media US nationwide
Coeff. SE p Coeff. SE p Coeff. SE p
Psychological distress
 Consumer debt 1.47 0.66 0.025 3.15 1.31 0.016 − 1.46 0.70 0.038
 Debt problems − 0.80 1.01 0.427 − 1.25 1.80 0.487 2.59 0.51 0.000
 Problem gambling 0.25 0.08 0.002 0.11 0.18 0.526 0.34 0.08 0.000
Consumer debt
 Problem gambling 0.22 0.03 0.000 0.42 0.08 0.000 0.07 0.03 0.022
Debt problems
 Consumer debt 3.51 0.39 0.000 2.33 0.64 0.000 1.12 0.21 0.000
 Problem gambling 0.09 0.04 0.032 0.09 0.06 0.134 0.17 0.03 0.000
Indirect effect (consumer debt) 0.33 0.15 0.032 1.33 0.61 0.029 − 0.10 0.07 0.123
Indirect effect (debt problems) − 0.08 0.10 0.456 − 0.11 0.18 0.529 0.44 0.11 0.000
Model n 985    205    883   
AIC 7461.55    1688.92    7588.00   
BIC 7510.47    1722.15    7635.83