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Table 3 The mediating effect of consumer debt and debt problems on psychological distress, mediated total effects, and average causal mediation effects (ACME)

From: Problem gambling and psychological distress: a cross-national perspective on the mediating effect of consumer debt and debt problems among emerging adults

  Study 1 Study 2 Study 3
Finland nationwide Finland social media US nationwide
Mediator SOGS SOGS-M SOGS SOGS-M SOGS SOGS-M
 Consumer debt
  Mediated total effect (%) 5.35% 4.42% 48.99% 31.19% − 0.23% − 0.47%
  ACME 0.02 0.03 0.26 0.24 0.00 0.00
 Debt problems
  Mediated total effect (%) 0.03% 0.08% − 0.32% − 0.30% 5.13% 9.40%
  ACME 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.06