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Table 6 Alternative generalized structural equation models using SOGS-M for problem gambling, regression coefficients and standard errors (SE), and statistical significances (p)

From: Problem gambling and psychological distress: a cross-national perspective on the mediating effect of consumer debt and debt problems among emerging adults

  Study 1 Study 2 Study 3
Finland nationwide Finland social media US nationwide
Coeff. SE p Coeff. SE p Coeff. SE p
Psychological distress
 Instant loans 1.33 0.65 0.042 2.80 1.32 0.033 − 1.46 0.70 0.037
 Debt problems − 0.81 1.01 0.421 − 1.29 1.78 0.471 2.55 0.52 0.000
 Problem gambling (SOGS-M) 0.39 0.10 0.000 0.29 0.24 0.228 0.46 0.11 0.000
Consumer debt
 Problem gambling (SOGS-M) 0.29 0.04 0.000 0.49 0.08 0.000 0.10 0.04 0.016
Debt problems
 Instant loans 3.52 0.39 0.000 2.42 0.64 0.000 1.12 0.21 0.000
 Problem gambling (SOGS-M) 0.12 0.06 0.054 0.09 0.09 0.299 0.24 0.04 0.000
Indirect effect (consumer debt) 0.38 0.20 0.049 1.38 0.69 0.045 − 0.15 0.10 0.115
Indirect effect (debt problems) − 0.10 0.13 0.457 − 0.12 0.20 0.554 0.61 0.15 0.000
Model n 985    205    883   
AIC 7452.96    1691.49    7582.09   
BIC 7501.89    1724.72    7629.92