Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of substance misuse interventions in conflict-affected populations

From: Challenges and opportunities for implementation of substance misuse interventions in conflict-affected populations

Author, year Country Population Objective (design) Intervention Implementation challenges
Abatemarco, 2004; West, 2008 Croatia Middle school students (49% female, 10–14 years) Delay alcohol initiation and reduce use (cluster RCT) School-based educational intervention Human resources, community buy-in, competing priorities, government turnover
Agani, 2010 Kosovo Family and community members Strengthen community resilience and resources to address substance misuse (no evaluation) Linking Human Systems Community Resilience Model (LINC) None reported
Armstrong, 2010; Kumar, 2009 India People who inject drugs; mean age, 30–31 years; mostly male Reduce opioid use and related harm (Armstrong, 2010: prospective; Kumar, 2009: cross-sectional) Sublingual buprenorphine Sustainable funding
Bolton, 2014 Thailand Adult Burmese refugees Reduce alcohol and co-occurring mental health problems (RCT) Transdiagnostic psychotherapy including brief motivational interviewing Supervision, communication
DARE, 2014; Lai, 2014 Thailand Refugees (male and female, adult and adolescent) Treat and prevent substance use disorder (pre-, post-test) Drug and Alcohol Recovery Education (DARE) and rehabilitation None reported
Ezard, 2010 Thailand Adult male Burmese refugees Detect hazardous alcohol use and motivate reduction in risky drinking (cross-sectional) Screening and brief intervention Stigma, mistrust
Todd, 2009; Todd, 2015 Afghanistan Males who inject drugs; 95% refugees; mean age, 32 years Reduce injection-related harms (qualitative) Harm reduction and needle exchange program Insufficient services, logistics, organization
UNODC, 2003; UNODC, 2004 Afghanistan, Pakistan refugee camps Adults (mostly refugees) with substance use problems Prevent and reduce substance misuse and promote reintegration (no evaluation) Capacity building, community awareness, rehabilitation None reported
Widmann, 2017 Kenya Male (50% refugees); mean age, 27 years Reduce khat use (RCT) ASSIST-linked brief intervention Criminality, political tension
  1. Abbreviations: ASSIST Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test, RCT randomized controlled trial, UNODC United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime