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Table 1 Injection initiation assistance provision and related factors among people who inject drugs in San Diego, USA; Tijuana, Mexico; and Vancouver, Canada (n = 2113)

From: Gender differences in the provision of injection initiation assistance: a comparison of three North American settings

Categorical variables San Diego (N = 347)
n (%)
Tijuana (N = 532)
n (%)
Vancouver (N = 1234)
n (%)
Helped someone initiate injection (lifetime)
 Yes 130 (37.5) 76 (14.3) 288 (23.3)
 No 217 (62.5) 456 (85.7) 946 (76.7)
Gender
 Men 249 (71.8) 327 (61.5) 791 (64.1)
 Women 98 (28.2) 205 (38.5) 443 (35.9)
Housing status
 Stable housing 179 (51.6) 330 (62.0) 389 (31.5)
 Other 168 (48.4) 202 (38.0) 845 (68.5)
Marital status
 Married 41 (11.8) 245 (46.1) 171 (13.9)
 Other 306 (88.2) 287 (54.0) 1063 (86.1)
Non-injected heroin (lifetime)
 Yes 263 (75.9) 289 (54.3)
 No 84 (24.2) 243 (45.7)
Non-injected cocaine (lifetime)
 Yes 317 (91.4) 361 (67.9)
 No 30 (8.7) 171 (32.1)
Non-injected methamphetamine (lifetime)
 Yes 328 (94.5) 468 (88.0)
 No 19 (5.48) 64 (12.03)
Injected heroin (lifetime)
 Yes 298 (85.9) 531 (99.8)
 No 49 (14.1) 1 (0.2)
Injected cocaine (lifetime)
 Yes 259 (74.6) 321 (60.3)
 No 88 (25.4) 211 (39.7)
Injected methamphetamine (lifetime)
 Yes 309 (89.05) 471 (88.53)
 No 38 (10.95) 61 (11.47)
Age (mean years) 46.84 (SD 11.28) 41.05 (SD 8.68) 45.76 (SD 11.62)
Years since first injection (mean years) 23.91 (SD 13.12) 19.90 (SD 9.46) 23.98 (SD 12.86)
  1. Note: SD standard deviation
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