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Table 3 Subgroup of parents with children under 18 compared to the population without children

From: Sociodemographic characteristics of patients with children in a methadone maintenance program: a cross-sectional study

  aOR 95% CI P value
   Lower bounds Upper bounds  
Sex (male) 2.231 1.627 3.060 < 0.0001
Age (years) 1.012 0.990 1.033 0.283
Highest level of education
 Grade 8 and below 1.787 1.129 2.829 0.013
 Grades 9–12 1.139 0.803 1.617 0.465
 College/university, trade school, or masters/PhD 0.855 0.612 1.199 0.365
Employment status 0.817 0.578 1.110 0.183
Marital status
 Married/common law/living with partner 1.826 1.317 2.533 < 0.0001
Source of first opioid exposure
 Physician prescribed 1.540 1.132 2.094 0.006
Smoking status
 Current smoker 1.050 0.675 1.634 0.827
Self-reported substance use in the past 30 days
 Alcohol 0.950 0.698 1.292 0.742
 Benzodiazepine 0.680 0.398 1.160 0.157
 Heroin 0.917 0.550 1.527 0.738
 Cocaine 0.846 0.559 1.281 0.430
 Amphetamine 1.107 0.540 2.269 0.781
 Crack cocaine 1.256 0.697 2.263 0.449
 Cannabis 0.826 0.608 1.123 0.222
 Illicit methadone 4.464 0.915 21.769 0.064
 Other drug* 0.970 0.715 1.316 0.847
Methadone dose (mg/day) 1.000 0.995 1.002 0.506
Length of current treatment (months) 1.000 0.996 1.004 0.924
Age of first opioid use 1.028 1.003 1.053 0.029
Illicit opioid use by urine screens
At least 1 positive urine screen during 3 month study period
1.108 0.803 1.529 0.534
  1. Included in analysis: 838
  2. aOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence intervals, parental status: having one or more children, reference group is being a parent, substance use is not an indication of substance use disorder
  3. *Other drugs used by participants include ketamine, Percocet, diluadid, oxycontin, fentanyl, oxycodeine, hydromorphone, morphine, acetaminophen, crystal meth, gabapentin, MDMA, OxyNeo, Ritalin, poppy seed opium, Hashish, illicit Suboxone, and codeine