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Table 3 Risk estimates calculated for heart failure and ischemic heart disease among current exclusive SLT users

From: Smokeless tobacco mortality risks: an analysis of two contemporary nationally representative longitudinal mortality studies

Cause of Death (ICD-10 Codes) Hazard ratio (95% CI)a [number of deaths]
NLMS (1863 observations) NHIS (1561 observations)
Diseases of the heart (I00-09, I11, I13, I20-51) 1.07 (0.65–1.75) [22] 1.20 (0.91–1.58) [114]
Heart failure (I50) 1.13 (0.28–4.62) [2] 2.75 (1.55–4.89)b [21]
Ischemic heart disease (I20-25) 0.95 (0.49–1.83) [14] 1.06 (0.75–1.49) [79]
  1. aThe reference group comprised individuals who never used tobacco (according to survey defined parameters)
  2. bItalicized risk estimates denote a statistically significant difference between the test group noted and a no-tobacco reference group