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Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics of FORECAST participants according to reported behavior change during last suspected fentanyl exposure

From: Harm reduction measures employed by people using opioids with suspected fentanyl exposure in Boston, Baltimore, and Providence

  Total Used as intended Practiced HRB p value
  No. (col %) No. (row %) No. (row %)  
Total 196 (100) 119 (60.7) 77 (39.3)  
Study center
 Baltimore 103 (52.6) 62 (60.2) 41 (39.8)  
 Boston 53 (27) 35 (66.0) 18 (34.0)  
 Providence 40 (20.4) 22 (55.0) 18 (45.0) 0.552
Age
 < 35 54 (27.6) 41 (75.9) 13 (24.1)  
 > 35 142 (72.4) 78 (54.9) 64 (45.1) 0.007
Gender
 Male 116 (59.2) 75 (64.7) 41 (35.3)  
 Female 80 (40.8) 44 (55.0) 36 (45.0) 0.174
Race
 NH White 92 (46.9) 67 (72.8) 25 (27.2)  
 NH Black 63 (32.1) 30 (47.6) 33 (52.4)  
 Hispanic/other 41 (20.9) 22 (53.7) 19 (46.3) 0.004
Homeless 135 (68.9) 83 (61.5) 52 (38.5) 0.744
Legally unemployed 172 (87.8) 105 (61.0) 67 (39.0) 0.799
Drug use, past 6 months
 Heroin 182 (92.9) 109 (59.9) 73 (40.1) 0.394
 Cocaine 170 (86.7) 102 (60.0) 68 (40.0) 0.601
 Prescription opioid use (illicit/misuse) 87 (44.4) 52 (59.8) 35 (40.2) 0.809
 Crack cocaine 143 (73) 81 (56.6) 62 (43.4) 0.055
 Methamphetamine 29 (14.8) 21 (72.4) 8 (27.6) 0.162
 Illicit benzodiazepine use/misuse 103 (52.6) 68 (66.0) 35 (34.0) 0.110
 Alcohol 123 (62.8) 65 (52.8) 58 (47.2) 0.003
 Polydrug use (> 4) 104 (53.1) 60 (57.7) 44 (42.3) 0.357
Overdose history
 Ever overdose
  No 55 (28. 2) 27 (4.1) 28 (50.9)  
  Yes 140 (71.4) 92 (65.7) 48 (34.3) 0.032
 Number of overdoses, past year     
  None 102 (52.0) 58 (56.9) 44 (43.1)  
  One to two 52 (26.5) 30 (57.7) 22 (42.3)  
  Three or more 42 (21.4) 31 (73.8) 11 (26.2) 0.074
 Ever witnessed a fatal overdose 91 (46.4) 56 (61.5) 35 (38.5) 0.826
Risk environment
 Injection drug use     
  Never 43 (21.9) 18 (41.9) 25 (58.1)  
  Less than daily 50 (25.5) 28 (56.0) 22 (44.0)  
  ≥ Daily 103 (52.6) 73 (70.9) 30 (29.1) 0.003
 Usual drug use setting, past 30 days     
  Private 50 (25.5) 33 (45.2) 40 (54.8)  
  Public 103 (52.6) 83 (69.7) 36 (30.3) 0.001
 Usually used drugs alone 87 (44.4) 55 (63.2) 32 (36.8) 0.521
 Rushed buying, using or preparing drugs due to fear of police, past year 168 (85.7) 104 (61.9) 64 (38.1) 0.403
 Sold drugs, past 3 months 118 (60.2) 77 (65.3) 41 (34.8) 0.109
 Arrest, past year 102 (52) 64 (62.7) 38 (37.3) 0.544
 Drug-related arrest, past year 64 (32.7) 38 (59.4) 26 (40.6) 0.789
Drug treatment and harm reduction     
 Drug treatment (any), past 6 months 120 (61.2) 67 (55.8) 53 (44.2) 0.060
  Medication-assisted treatment 81 (41.3) 43 (53.1) 38 (46.9) 0.066
  Rehabilitation or detoxification 51 (26) 31 (60.8) 20 (39.2) 0.991
  Counseling/mental health/support group 57 (29.1) 27 (47.4) 30 (52.6) 0.014
 Carry naloxone 105 (53.6) 66 (62.9) 39 (37.1) 0.637
  1. Significant p values (< 0.05) are shown in italics