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Table 1 Hazard and hazard category classifications of chemicals reported by Vardavas et al. and their corresponding FEMA numbers

From: Toxicity classification of e-cigarette flavouring compounds based on European Union regulation: analysis of findings from a recent study

SubstanceFEMA GRAS NoHazard, hazard category and hazard phrase according to CLPReference
Menthol2265H315 Causes skin irritation (Category 2)[16]
 H319 Causes serious eye irritation (Category 2)
Ethyl maltol3487H302 Harmful if swallowed (Category 4)[15]
Linalool2635H315 Causes skin irritation (Category 2)[17]
 H317 May cause an allergic skin reaction. (Category 1)
 H319 Causes serious eye irritation (Category 2)
Methyl cyclopentenolone2700H302 Harmful if swallowed (Category 4)[18]
 H319 Causes serious eye irritation (Category 2)
 H334 May cause allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled (Category 1)
 H335 May cause respiratory irritation (Category 3)
β-Damascone3243H317 May cause an allergic skin reaction. (Category 1)[19]
 H411 Toxic to aquatic life with long-lasting effects (Category 2)
Ethyl vanillin2464H302 Harmful if swallowed (Category 4)[20]
 H315 Causes skin irritation (Category 2)
 H319 Causes serious eye irritation (Category 2)
 H335 May cause respiratory irritation (Category 3)
 H412 Harmful to aquatic life with long-lasting effects (Category 3)
β-Ionone2595H400 Very toxic to aquatic life (Category 1)[21]
 H411 Toxic to aquatic life with long-lasting effects (Category 2)
Acetyl pyrazine3126H315 Causes skin irritation (Category 2)[22]
 H319 Causes serious eye irritation (Category 2)
 H335 May cause respiratory irritation (Category 3)
α-Ionone2594H334 May cause allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled (Category 1)[23]
 H412 Harmful to aquatic life with long-lasting effects (Category 3)
Ethyl hexanoate2439H226 Flammable liquid and vapour (Category 3)[24]
2,5 dimethylpyrazine3271H226 Flammable liquid and vapour (Category 3)[25]
 H302 Harmful if swallowed (Category 4)
α-Damascone4088H302 Harmful if swallowed (Category 4)[26]
 H317 May cause an allergic skin reaction (Category 1)
 H411 Toxic to aquatic life with long-lasting effects (Category 2)
3,4 Dimethoxy-benzaldehyde3109H302 Harmful if swallowed (Category 4)[27]
Limonene2633H226 Flammable liquid and vapour (Category 3)[28]
 H304 May be fatal if swallowed and enters airways (Category 1)
 H315 Causes skin irritation (Category 2)
 H317 May cause an allergic skin reaction (Category 1)
 H400 Very toxic to aquatic life (Category 1)
 H410 Very toxic to aquatic life with long-lasting effect (Category 1)