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Table 2 Distribution of usual injection preparation and practices: PWID London 2017–2019

From: Injecting-related health harms and overuse of acidifiers among people who inject heroin and crack cocaine in London: a mixed-methods study

Injecting preparation, patterns and health outcomesN = 455
 n (%)
Main acid used to dissolve drugs for injecting in the last 12 monthsn = 284
 Citric acid237 (83.5)
 Vitamin C27 (9.5)
 Lemon juice4 (1.4)
 Kettle descaler1 (0.4)
 No acid15 (5.2)
Typical (usual) quantity of citric acid or vitamin C used to prepare a £10 bag of heroinn = 418
 More than a sachet5 (1.2)
 A whole sachet122 (29.2)
 ¾ of a sachet23 (5.5)
 ½ a sachet136 (32.5)
 ¼ of a sachet41 (9.8)
 A pinch91 (21.8)
Body site injected over lifetime
 Hands333 (73.2)
 Arms439 (96.5)
 Neck169 (37.1)
 Groin189 (41.5)
 Legs275 (60.4)
 Feet251 (55.2)
 Other63 (13.9)
Frequency of injecting in a typical week
 Once a week57 (12.5)
 2–4 times a week50 (11.0)
 4–6 times a week31 (6.8)
 Once a day44 (9.7)
 2–3 times a day164 (36.0)
 4 or more times a day109 (24.0)
Number of times usually insert the needle before successful vein injection
 Once (I always get it the first time)202 (44.4)
 Twice82 (18.0)
 3–4 times58 (12.8)
 4 or more times108 (23.7)
 I do not inject into a vein5 (1.1)
SSTI history and hospitalisation
 No159 (35.0)
 Yes, but not hospitalised159 (35.0)
 Yes, and hospitalised137 (30.0)
Ever diagnosed with DVTN = 455
 No350 (76.9)
 Yes105 (23.1)
Ever diagnosed with blood poisoning
 No372 (81.8)
 Yes83 (18.2)
Ever diagnosed with endocarditis
 No433 (95.2)
 Yes22 (4.8)
Current albumin-creatinine ratio (past 12 months)N = 316
 Normal254 (80.4)
 Abnormal/high abnormal62 (19.6)