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Table 1 Comparison between heroin-cannabis smokers and IV heroin users at baseline

From: Smoking heroin with cannabis versus injecting heroin: unexpected impact on treatment outcomes

CharacteristicSmokers (n = 211) (%)IV users (n = 89) (%)p value
Median age at enrolment (years) (IOR)27 (24–30)25 (22–28)0.01
Gender
 Male179 (84.8)77 (86.5)0.86
 Female32 (15.2)12 (13.5)
Years of schooling
 Up to 9 years27 (12.8)16 (18.0)0.34
 10–11 years115 (55.4)52 (58.4)
 Completed high school38 (18.0)10 (11.2)
Employment status
 Employed (including informal employment)114 (54.0)48 (53.9)> 0.99
 Unemployed95 (45.0)40(44.9)
 Scholar2 (0.9)1 (1.1)
 Median age at first heroin use (years) (IQR)20 (17–23)18 (16–20)0.001
Past month substance use
 Heroin211 (100.0)89 (100.0)-
 Cannabis210 (95.5)89 (55.1)< 0.0001
 Alcohol38 (18.0)11 (12.4)0.30
 Crystalmetamphetamine35 (16.6)23 (25.8)0.08
 Crack-cocaine59 (28.0)19 (21.3)0.25
 Methaqualone38 (18.0)17 (19.1)0.87
 Tobacco208 (98.689 (100.0)0.56
 Median Q score heroin (IQR)7.5 (4.5–10)6 (4.5–9)0.14
 3 or more substances used (past month)121 (57.3)41 (46.1)< 0.0001
Psychiatric comorbidities
 Major depressive episode (past)74 (35.1)28 (31.5)0.59
 Generalised anxiety disorder60 (28.4)18 (20.2)0.15
 Post-traumatic stress disorder41 (19.4)12 (13.5)0.25
 Any mental illness (excl ASPD*)112 (53.1)36 (40.4)0.06
 Median social functioning total score (IQR)27 (23–31)27 (22–31)0.85
 Median criminality total score (IQR)4 (1–6)4 (2–7)0.01
 Median general health total score (IQR)20 (15–24)20 (15–24)0.87
 HIV positive21 (13.2)23 (31.1)0.002
  1. *Antisocial personality disorder. p values in italics are significant