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Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics, drug injection behaviour and HCV-status, awareness and testing experience of PWID participating in the German DRUCK-study 2011–2014 by duration of injection drug use

From: High prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection and low level of awareness among people who recently started injecting drugs in a cross-sectional study in Germany, 2011–2014: missed opportunities for hepatitis C testing

 Injecting drugs < 5 years (N = 232)Injecting drugs ≥ 5 years (N = 1827)p
nProportionk (%)nProportionk (%)
Sociodemographic characteristics
 Age ≤ 25 years7130.6623.4< 0.001***
 2nd-generation migranta2611.227314.90.128
 1st-generation migrantb6327.239321.50.051
 Did not graduate from school4619.825013.70.012*
Main place of residence in the last 12 months (max 2 entries)
 Own flat11148.1104057.50.006**
 With family or friends5724.729716.40.002**
 Homeless, staying in shelters5021.725814.30.003**
 Ever homelessc13257.1122667.30.002**
 Ever in prison14361.9151883.3< 0.001***
 Released from prison in the last 12 monthsd3724.333224.20.965
Sources of income in the last 12 months
 Job (including unemployment benefit I)6126.438421.20.069
 State benefits17174.0154885.3< 0.001***
 Selling newspapers, begging, dealing11047.667337.10.002**
 Sex work177.4603.30.002**
Injection behavior
 Age at first injection < 18 years198.262334.1< 0.001***
 Injecting daily in the last 30 days6334.245230.10.244
Substance injected in the last 30 daysf
 Speed (amphetamines)114.7603.30.254
 Crystal (metamphetamines) g177.4643.50.005**
Substance consumed in the last 30 days
 Speed (amphetamines)4921.123412.80.001**
 Crystal (metamphetamines)g2310.0975.30.005**
Most common setting of drug injection in the last 30 daysh
 Alone at homee7642.267845.40.425
 In consumption roome,i2427.619531.90421
 With good acquaintancese7541.248432.40.017*
 With steady partnere2413.324116.10.317
 With hardly known or unknown peoplee158.31258.40.984
Unsafe use in the last 30 dayh
 Used used needles or syringes1910.41338.80.482
 Used water from a shared container4524.731621.40.302
 Used used spoons or filters4022.128018.70.268
Source for sterile needles and syringes in the last 30 daysh
 Low threshold services11562.2106970.20.025*
 Syringe vending machinej4852.829037.90.006**
 Pharmacy (bought)6738.265644.10.142
Access to addiction therapy
 Ever in detoxification14361.6151783.2< 0.001***
 Ever in weaning/rehabilitation program8034.5100455.1< 0.001***
 Ever in outpatient substitution therapy12654.3153284.0< 0.001***
 Currently in outpatient substitution therapy6829.394551.8< 0.001***
HCV status, awareness and testing experience
 HCV positive8335.8127069.5< 0.001***
 Detectable HCV-RNA6327.283645.8< 0.001***
 Of HCV positive: Unaware of HCV positive status3340.715712.6< 0.001***
 Ever tested for HCV15373.2165393.6< 0.001***
 Report negative HCV test, last test > 12 months ago3236.813538.80.730
  1. aBorn in Germany, mother and/or father born abroad
  2. bBorn outside of Germany
  3. cDefined as reporting living on the streets or in homeless shelters as main residence in the last 12 months
  4. dNot asked in Berlin, Essen
  5. eLast 30 days
  6. fSubstance consumed in last 30 days and most common mode of consumption injection
  7. gMethamphethamine use was concentrated in Leipzig (East Germany) and to a lower extent in Munich (South Germany), while it played almost no role in other study cities
  8. hOnly answered if participants injected drugs in the last 30 days
  9. iInformation available for Essen, Berlin, Hamburg; reported use of drug consumption rooms varied widely between cities: highest use in Hamburg (> 60% reported by NI and LI), lowest use in Berlin (< 10% reported by NI and LI)
  10. jExist in Berlin, Essen, Cologne, Munich
  11. kof responding participants
  12. *p < 0.05
  13. **p < 0.01
  14. ***p < 0.001