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Table 2 HCV-status, awareness, injection behaviour and access to addiction and medical care of new injectors by self-reported HCV-testing experience prior to study

From: High prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection and low level of awareness among people who recently started injecting drugs in a cross-sectional study in Germany, 2011–2014: missed opportunities for hepatitis C testing

 Reported previous HCV-test (N = 153)Reported no previous HCV-test (N= 56)p
Sociodemographic characteristic
 Age 25 years3925.52442.90.015*
 1st-generation migranta4529.41221.40.251
 2nd-generation migrantb138.5610.70.621
 Mainly homeless, staying in sheltersc3120.41730.40.130
 Ever in prison9461.83664.30.747
 Released from prison in the last 12 monthsd2223.21024.40.876
HCV status
 Detectable HCV-RNA4730.71425.00.421
 Of HCV-positive: unaware of HCV-positive status1422.616100.0< 0.001***
Access to addiction therapy
 Drug addiction ever treated12883.73257.1< 0.001***
 Ever in detoxification10568.62646.40.008**
 Ever in weaning/rehabilitation program6039.21526.80.097
 Ever in outpatient substitution10166.01526.8< 0.001***
 Currently in outpatient substitution5234.01017.90.024*
 Sought medical care within the last 12 months12783.04478.60.462
If accessed medical care within 12 months: last access point
 Practice without addiction services3729.81637.20.371
 Practice with OST4435.5614.00.008**
 Detention facilities (prison hospital)118.912.30.152
 Low threshold drug services43.212.30.765
 Local public health office10.812.30.430
Main source for sterile needles and syringes in the last 30 days
 Low threshold services806721460.011*
 Bought in pharmacies211812260.224
 Syringe vending machinee16258360.325
 Visited low threshold drug services in the last 30 daysf778821750.112
Drug injection behaviour in the last 30 daysg
 Injected drugs12682.44783.90.789
 Daily injection4636.81327.70.260
 Injection of heroin9360.82646.40.063
 Injection of cocaine5536.01323.10.082
 Injection of crack85.323.60.613
 Injection of amphetamines74.647.10.462
 Injection of methamphetaminesh53.31119.6< 0.001
  1. aBorn in Germany, mother and/or father born abroad
  2. bBorn outside of Germany
  3. cDefined as reporting living on the streets or in homeless shelters as main residence in the last 12 months
  4. dNot asked in Berlin, Essen
  5. eSubstance consumed in the last 30 days and most common mode of consumption injection
  6. eExist in Berlin, Essen, Cologne, Munich
  7. fNot asked in Berlin, Essen, Leipzig
  8. gSubstance consumed in the last 30 days and most common mode of consumption injection
  9. hConsumption of methamphethamine was concentrated in Leipzig (East Germany) and to a lower extent in Munich (South Germany), while it played almost no role in other study cities
  10. iof responding participants
  11. *p < 0.05
  12. **p < 0.01
  13. ***p < 0.001