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Table 1 Description of studies

From: Potential effects of using non-combustible tobacco and nicotine products during pregnancy: a systematic review

CitationSample sizeLoc1Pop2Design3Data4Condition 5Outcome measure6Adjusted for7
Randomized controlled studies
[20,21,22,23,24]1010EngWhiteD_Bl, PlSR, COPatch, placeboBW, GA, PT, SB, NICU Ad, ApgS, MF, CDRecruitment centre
[25]194USAHispanic, WhiteD_Bl, PlSR, CO, CR, MRGum, placeboBW, GA, ApgS, PT,Normal distribution only
[26]181USAWhiteNBSR, CRCBT, CBT+NRTBW, GAPre-term birth
[27]23USAWhiteCrUS, BP, PulsePatch, smokingSystolic, diastolic BP, middle cerebral, umbilical or uterine arteries, fetal heart rateN/A
Cross-sectional population-based studies
[37]379,214NC  MR, SR (MWR)NSNNU, smoking, snus,PreeclampsiaMaternal age at delivery, early pregnancy, BMI, parity, and YrsEd. Excluded dual users and multiple births
[38]1,270,161Sw  MR, SR (MWR)NSNNU, smoking, Snus, dual-usePTParity, PPBMI, family situation Maternal age, maternal Country of birth, YrsEd. Excluded multiple births
[39]609,551NC  MR, SRNSNNU, smoking, snusSGA, NapSGA: maternal age, height, parity, education. In addition, for apnea: infant gender, GA, SGA, delivery method
[28]72,761Dk  MR, TSRNSNNU, smoking, combined-NRTBWInfant sex, parity, fertility problems, maternal age, SES, MS, PPBMI, maternal weight loss during pregnancy, occupational physical strain, physical exercise, coffee, alcohol, nausea, vomiting, vaginal bleeding, eating disorder, hypertension, PSS, maternal height.
Excluded multiple births, pre-28 weeks birth,
[40]610,879Sw  MR, SR (MWR)NSNNU, smoking, snusSBMaternal age, PPBMI, parity, YrsEd, chronic hypertension, and pre-gestational diabetes. Excluding women with preeclampsia, antenatal bleeding, and SGA.
[29]90,165Dk  MR, TSRNSNNU, smoking, NRT, dual-useSBFor the NRT groups: smoking, Maternal age, SES. Excluded: Multiple births, pregnancies ending in hydatidiform mole or ectopic pregnancy, or before 20 completed weeks.
[30]220,630UK  MR, SRNever-smoked, RecNRT, smokingSBMaternal age, SES, pre-pregnancy BMI, and diabetes. Excluded multi-births
[31]76,768Dk  MR, SRNSNNU, smoking, NRTMFNot specified for NRT group
[32]192,498UK  MR, SRNSNNU, smoking, RecNRTMFAge, SES, maternal diabetes, asthma, mental illnesses, and multiple births. Excluding: SB
[41]975,866Sw  MR, SRNSNNU, smoking, snusMFage, parity, education, living with father-to-be, hypertension, diabetes, PE, sex of newborn, birth (singleton or multiple)
[33]63,128Dk  TSRNRT, NSNNU, smokingColicMaternal age, parity, daily coffee consumption, weekly alcohol consumption, binge-drinking, and education and SES
Cross-sectional non-population-based studies
[44]129   MRVapingBW, PTNot specified
[34]5716USAWhite SWQ, BCRecNRT, never-smoked, smokingBW, PTAge, PPBMI, race/ethnicity, education level, MS, income, MA, parity, alcohol, and maternal weight gain during pregnancy. Excluded: no PNC, no information on MS, MA, or alcohol
[42]23,542Sw  MR, SR (MWR)NSNNU, smoking, snusBW, PT, PEMaternal age, GA, BMI, parity, infant sex, excluded, multiple births, stillbirths
[45]41USAANCS8SI, LipToolNSNNU (C), Iq’mik,GA, BW, ApgS, LipToolNot stated
Prospective study
[43]56Sw PilotSR, COTSnus, NSNNU, smokingCVDBW, baby’s sex, mother’s weight, parity, gestational week at delivery, GA, and BW
Observational pilot study
[35, 36]6USAWhitePilotPE, CVN/AAllNot specified
  1. 1Location: Eng = England, Dk = Denmark, NC = Nordic countries, No = Norway, Sw = Sweden, USA = United States of America, UK = United Kingdom
  2. 2Ethnicity of majority population if given: White = classified as “white” in the publication, H = Hispanic, AN = Alaskan native
  3. 3Additional design features: Cr = cross over RCT, D_Bl = double-blind, L = longitudinal, LipTool = Lipsitz tool, NB = not blinded, Pl = placebo, Ps = prospective
  4. 4BC = birth certificate, BP = blood pressure, CO = carbon monoxide reading, CR = cotinine (urine or hair) reading, MR = medical records, MWR = midwives records, SI = scientifically structured interviews, SR = self-report (without verification or with non-scientific interviewers), SWQ = self-completed written questionnaire, TSR = telephone self-reports
  5. 5Comparison groups: CBT = cognitive behavioural therapy, Combined-NRT = more than 1 NRT, ExS = smokers who quit smoking and did not use any nicotine products while pregnant, N/A = not applicable, NSNNU = no smoking no nicotine use, RecNRT = recommended to use NRT
  6. 6Outcome measures: ApgS = APGAR score, BW = birth weight, CD = caesarean delivery, CV = cardiovascular, GA = gestational age, MF = malformations, NAp = neonatal apnea, PE = preeclampsia, PT = preterm delivery, SB = still birth, SGA = small for gestational age
  7. 7Stating all the variables they adjusted for MA = medicaid, MS = marital status, PP = planned pregnancy, PPBMI = pre-pregnancy BMI, PSS = partner’s smoking status, SES = socioeconomic status, YrsEd = years of education
  8. 8Referred to as a “nonrandomized, clinical observational pilot trial”; however, because the study did not include an intervention, it has been classified as a cross-sectional study