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Table 2 Associations between the presence of fentanyl metabolites and (a) other substance metabolites detected by urine toxicology and (b) self-reported past week substance use (N = 1050 study assessments)

From: Addressing overdose risk among unstably housed women in San Francisco, California: an examination of potential fentanyl contamination of multiple substances

 Detection periodStudy visits detected
N (%)
Co-occurring fentanyl detectionUnadjusted odds of fentanyl detection95% confidence intervalAdjusted odds of fentanyl detection95% confidence interval
(a) Metabolites detected by urine toxicology
 Fentanyl3 days35 (3%)----------
 Opiates (codeine, etc.)12-3 days221 (21%)23 (10%)7.911.37-16.674.902.23-11.01
 Oxycodone/Oxymorphone21-3 days51 (5%)4 (8%)2.650.77-7.051.530.41-4.59
 Tramadol31-2 days110 (11%)5 (5%)1.440.48-3.491.570.50-4.13
 Heroin12-24 hours28 (3%)8 (29%)14.745.68-35.475.411.85-15.12
 Cocaine (crack or powder)2-3 days709 (68%)24 (3%)1.710.85-3.671.360.64-3.07
 Methamphetamine2-4 days293 (28%)17 (6%)2.531.27-4.991.320.60-2.83
 BenzodiazepinesUp to 2 weeks112 (11%)9 (8%)3.061.32-6.482.721.12-6.13
(b) Self-reported past week substance use
 Opioids4--285 (27%)29 (10%)14.306.29-38.549.263.83-25.95
 Heroin--103 (10%)20 (19%)15.037.41-30.796.432.81-15.04
 Crack cocaine--422 (40%)19 (5%)1.800.92-3.601.380.61-3.09
 Powder cocaine--109 (10%)7 (6%)2.230.88-4.980.710.24-1.90
 Methamphetamine--188 (18%)16 (9%)4.182.08-8.291.750.76-3.93
 Benzodiazepines5--171 (16%)12 (7%)2.801.33-5.651.020.24-1.90
  1. 1Includes morphine, codeine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, dihydrocodeine, morphine glucuronide, codeine glucuronide
  2. 2Includes oxycodone, oxymorphone
  3. 3Includes tramadol, meperidine, normeperidine, levorphanol, O-desmethyl-cis-tramadol
  4. 4Could include codeine, fentanyl, Vicodin, OxyContin, Percocet or morphine
  5. 5Could include Valium, Librium, Xanax, or Ambien or other anti-anxiety drug