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Table 3 Bivariate and multivariate analysis of predictors associated with HIV infection among PWID (n = 607)

From: Prevalence and risk factors associated with HIV-1 infection among people who inject drugs in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: a sign of successful intervention?

CharacteristicsNumber of participants (weighted %)Weighted % of HIV positiveBivariate analysisMultivariate analysis
cOR (95% CI)p valueaOR (95% CI)p value
Sex**
 Male576 (94.4)6.81 1 
 Female35 (5.6)42.014.7 (4.9–43.1)0.000*19.1(5.9–61.8)0.000*
Age group (years)
 < 2554 (8.7)2.91 1 
 25–34264 (43.0)5.82.1 (0.3–16.8)0.4985.4(0.4–76.4)0200
 35–44245 (41.5)10.84.0 (0.5–30.9)0.18011.6(0.9–144.5)0.057
4544 (6.8)22.49.7 (1.1–86.9)0.043*34.2(2.4–489.5)0.009*
Educational level
 None113 (23.5)10.81   
 Primary education418 (67.6)7.40.7 (0.3–1.4)0.273  
 Secondary education60 (8.9)13.41.3 (0.4–3.6)0.648  
Income per month (Tshs)
 < 50,000116 (20.3)10.01 1 
 50,000–120,000145 (25.7)10.81.1 (0.4–2.8)0.8591.5 (0.5–4.5)0.515
 120,001–200,00095 (17.6)9.61.0 (0.4–2.6)0.3500.7 (0.2–2.3)0.566
 > 200,000255 (30.4)6.20.6 (0.3–1.4)0.2470.4 (0.2–1.9)0.444
Occupation
 None24 (3.6)6.01   
 Self employed450 (74.7)7.71.3 (0.2–11.0)0.797  
 Employed100 (16.3)6.51.1 (0.1–10.1)0.946  
 Informal employment37 (5.4)31.37.1 (0.8–63.1)0.077  
Marital status
 Single323 (52.7)8.31   
 Married partner115 (17.1)8.01.0 (0.4–2.4)0.928  
 Separated/Divorced173 (30.2)9.81.2 (0.56–2.6)0.633  
Ever shared needle
 No258 (41.0)5.61 1 
 Yes253 (59.0)13.42.6 (1.3–5.1)0.005*2.2(0.8–6.3)0.148
Used needle previous used by others in the past 1 month
 No438 (71.0)6.81 1 
 Yes173 (29.0)13.52.1 (1.08–4.24)0.029*0.7(0.2–2.0)0.509
Taken any non-injected drugs other than alcohol in the last three months
 No409 (65.0)7.91   
 Yes202 (35.0)10.41.4 (0.7–2.7)0.382  
Duration injecting drugs (in years)
 < 1 year47 (9.0)2.91 1 
 1–3 years108 (17.0)4.31.5 (0.2–8.8)0.6622.3 (0.5–10.9)0.294
 4–6 years117 (29.0)3.01.0 (0.1–7.4)0.9691.9 (0.3–10.0)0.469
 7–9 years76 (12.0)8.43.1 (0.5–17.3)0.2064.2 (0.9–19.0)0.059
 10+ years263 (44.0)14.25.5(1.2–25.8)0.030*7.3 (2.1–25.5)0.002*
Used a new sterile needle last time injected
 No108 (18)16.41 1 
 Yes503 (82)7.10.4 (0.2–0.8)0.005*0.3 (0.1–0.8)0.020*
Ever used a male condom
 No156 (25.0)6.31 1 
 Yes455 (75.0)9.51.6(0.7–3.4)0.2461.7 (0.6–4.7)0.277
Alcohol consumption
 Never413 (69.0)8.01   
 2–3 times a week31 (4.9)7.50.9 (0.3–3.4)0.914  
 4 or more times a week39 (5.1)10.91.4 (0.5–4.0)0.515  
 2–4 times a month127 (20.0)11.11.4 (0.6–3.4)0.400  
Experience of both form of violence
 No272 (42)6.51   
 Yes339 (58)11.81.9 (0.9–3.8)0.064  
Experience of physical violence
 No385 (65)8.31   
 Yes226 (35)9.71.2 (0.6–2.3)0.616  
Experience of sexual violence
 No520 (86)6.91 1 
 Yes91 (14)19.73.3 (1.6–6.7)0.001*1.2 (0.6–3.1)0.718
  1. Only covariates with a p value threshold of < 0.25 tin the bivariate analysis were included in the multivariate analysis
  2. AOR adjusted odds ratio, cOR crude odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  3. *A p value of 0.05 and below was considered statistically significant
  4. **Unweighted Chi-square analysis was used to summarize of the percentage of HIV infection by sex